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Comparison of the two international standards of chemotherapy for patients with early unfavourable or advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma is a malignancy of the lymphatic system. It is one of the most common cancers in young adults, particularly in their third decade of life, but it occurs also in children and elderly people. Within the last fifty years it has become one of the most curable forms of cancer. To find the best treatment with the greatest efficacy and least toxicity is the most important challenge in treating Hodgkin lymphoma. There are two international standards for the treatment of early unfavourable or advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma: chemotherapy with escalated BEACOPP (bleomycin/etoposide/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide/vincristine/procarbazine/prednisone) regimen initiated by the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) and chemotherapy with ABVD (doxorubicin/ bleomycin/ vinblastine/ dacarbazine) regimen, which is widely used because it has been proven to be effective, well tolerated and easy to administer. We aimed to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of both treatments by comparing the chance of survival (overall survival), the chance of recurrence of the tumour and the frequencies of adverse events after treatment in patients with early unfavourable stage or advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Anti‐cancer drug treatment for gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) that does not respond to first‐line treatment or that re‐occurs

This review concerns anti‐cancer drug treatment for women with GTN that does not respond to first‐line treatment or that re‐occurs. GTN is the name given to a type of cancer that arises from placental tissue following pregnancy, most frequently a molar pregnancy. Molar pregnancies are benign abnormal growths of placental tissue inside the womb. Most are cured by evacuation (D&C) of the womb, however, in up to 20% of cases they become malignant. GTN is usually very responsive to anti‐cancer drugs (chemotherapy), however, these drugs can be toxic, therefore the aim of treatment is to achieve a cure with the least side effects. To help doctors select the most appropriate treatment for women with GTN, the disease is classified as low‐ or high‐risk according to specific risk factors.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Combinations of anti‐cancer drugs to treat high‐risk cancers arising from the placenta, known as high‐risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN)

GTN is a cancer that most often arises after a molar pregnancy but can arise after any type of pregnancy. Molar pregnancies occur due to abnormal growth of placental tissue that is usually benign and treated by evacuation of the womb (D&C). However, in less than 10% of molar pregnancies in the UK, the growth remains after D&C and transforms into a cancer (GTN) that needs treatment with anti‐cancer drugs (chemotherapy). GTN can be low‐risk or high‐risk. Anti‐cancer drugs are very effective, especially in low‐risk GTN, which is usually cured with single‐drug treatment. However, high‐risk GTN needs to be treated with combinations of anti‐cancer drugs for the best effect. These drugs can produce toxic side effects that are more likely to occur when used in combination with each other. The most commonly administered drug combination is abbreviated as EMA/CO, which stands for Etoposide, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Cyclophosphamide and Oncovin® (vincristine), but several other combinations are also in use.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Are any effective treatment options available for the management of granulosa cell tumour of the ovary?

Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) of the ovary are rare ovarian tumours (2% to 5% of all ovarian cancers). Most ovarian tumours arise from the outer surface layer of the ovary, but GCTs arise from granulosa cells (sex cord cells) within the ovaries that produce oestrogen (primary female sex hormones). These tumours grow relatively slowly and can recur 10 to 15 years after primary treatment. If women with these tumours want to have children, the surgeon usually removes only the diseased ovary. However, standard treatment has consisted of surgery to remove tubes, ovaries and uterus, as most women develop GCTs around the time of the menopause, when fertility is no longer a matter of concern.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV‐infected adults

Kaposi’s sarcoma was the first tumor to be described in association with HIV infection and is an AIDS‐defining condition. It is also known as Kaposi's sarcoma‐associated herpes virus (KSHV) as Herpes virus 8 (HHV8) is recognized as an essential and necessary factor in the pathogenesis of KS. Nonetheless, not all HHV‐8‐infected individuals will develop the disease. The abnormal cells of KS form purple, red, or brown patches, plaques or tumors on the skin. There is no universally accepted system for staging Kaposi's sarcoma. The most commonly used staging system for AIDS‐related KS in adults is the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) staging.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 11, 2016

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