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Galantime for dementia in people with Down syndrome

The drug galantamine has been reported to have benefits for people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who do not have Down syndrome. However, people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the general population as well as being physically different in terms of size, metabolism and heart rate, and may therefore have different requirements. This review identified no randomised controlled trials of galantamine in people with Down syndrome. Further research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Rivastigmine for dementia in people with Down syndrome

The drug rivastigmine has been reported to have benefits for people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who do not have Down syndrome. However, people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the general population as well as being physically different in terms of size, metabolism and heart rate, and may therefore have different requirements. This review identified no randomised controlled trials of rivastigmine in people with Down syndrome. Further research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Memantine for dementia in people with Down syndrome

Memantine is thought to improve cognitive function and slow the decline of AD over time.The effects of memantine on AD are reported to be beneficial for people with moderate to severe AD in the general population, However, people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the general population as well as being physically different in terms of size, metabolism and heart rate, and may therefore have different requirements. Results from the one randomised controlled trial for the treatment of dementia in DS are not yet available (expected 2009).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Donepezil for dementia in people with Down Syndrome

Donepezil is a drug which is thought to discourage the breakdown of acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter in the brain that is important to how memory functions. Acetylcholine is lacking in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drug donepezil has been reported to have benefits for people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease who do not have Down syndrome. However, people with DS tend to present with AD at a much younger age than the general population as well as being physically different in terms of size, metabolism and heart rate, and may therefore have different requirements.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Aerobic exercise training programmes for adults with Down syndrome

Many people with Down syndrome have poor strength, poor muscle mass, and high body fat percentage and so are disposed to cardiovascular health problems. Although physical fitness has been suggested to improve physical and psychosocial health for a variety of healthy patient populations, information about the safety and effectiveness of aerobic exercise for adults with Down syndrome is lacking. This review identified only three small randomized trials. The results showed that only aspects of work performance (for example, maximal test time, maximal distance at the end of the exercise test) were improved after aerobic exercise training programs. Further well‐designed research on larger population samples is required to evaluate potential benefits for psychosocial aspects in adults with Down syndrome.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Premenstrual syndrome: Overview

The days leading up to menstrual periods are sometimes a mystery to women too: Out of the blue, women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) feel depressed, irritable, find it hard to concentrate, or cry easily. There are different ways to cope with these symptoms.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 19, 2013

Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase for mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome)

Hunter syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis II is a rare genetic disease that occurs when an enzyme that the body needs is either missing or malfunctioning. The body doesn't have adequate supplies of this enzyme to break down certain complex molecules, so these molecules build up in harmful amounts in certain cells and tissues. The build‐up that occurs in Hunter syndrome eventually causes permanent, progressive damage affecting appearance, mental development, organ function and physical abilities. Hunter syndrome appears in children as young as the age of two years and it nearly always occurs in males. In the past, treatment of Hunter syndrome has been limited to the relief of symptoms and complications. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase aims to replace iduronate‐2‐sulfatase, the enzyme that is deficient or absent in people with Hunter syndrome. However, given its high cost it is essential to assess how effective and safe this treatment is. Current evidence is limited because there was only one randomised clinical trial found in the medical literature. The quality of this trial was considered good and compared with placebo, enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase in people with Hunter syndrome, led to some improvement in the patients' ability to walk and a reduction in the excretion of  abnormal mucopolysaccharides in the urine. To date there is no evidence available in the literature showing that treatment reduces complications of the disease related to quality of life and mortality.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Options for Treating Restless Legs Syndrome: A Review of the Research for Adults

This summary will cover: What RLS is Treatment options for RLS What researchers have found about RLS treatments

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 30, 2013

Treadmill interventions with partial body weight support in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay

Children who have a diagnosis of Down syndrome or cerebral palsy, or who are born pre‐term, may be delayed in their motor development. Delays in motor development limit children's ability to move and achieve motor milestones such as walking, running and jumping. Helping children to walk is often the focus of therapeutic intervention. There is a body of literature to suggest that the best way to do this is by getting the child to practice stepping with appropriate support. Treadmill training, in which the child is supported by a harness, provides an opportunity for children to walk with support for long enough periods of time to acquire the necessary motor abilities for independent walking.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Preconception and antenatal screening for the fragile site on the X‐chromosome

No strong evidence to show who, other than women at risk, should be screened before or during pregnancy for fragile X syndrome.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Interventions for swallowing difficulty in children with neurological impairment

Oropharyngeal dysphagia, or swallowing difficulty, can be defined as problems with chewing and preparing food, difficulty moving food through the mouth to the back of the tongue, and difficulty with swallowing and movement of food through the 'throat' or pharynx. Many children with neurological impairment experience swallowing difficulties, including those with acquired brain impairment (for example, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke), genetic syndromes (for example, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome) and degenerative conditions (for example, myotonic dystrophy).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and other myeloproliferative disorders.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 10, 2015

Mobile phone messaging for communicating results of medical investigations

Mobile phones offer a way to communicate information quickly through simple, short text messages. This review studied whether mobile phone applications such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS) can be useful to send information to patients about their test results. We also looked at possible risks of communicating in this way. Our review found only one study evaluating the use of mobile phone messaging for communicating results of medical investigations. This study was at high risk of bias. The study suggested that the early communication of an antenatal screen test result by text messaging would not result in a difference in the anxiety scores of all pregnant women (irrespective of the test result) or when their test result is positive, however may reduce anxiety in pregnant women when their test result is negative. The usefulness of mobile phone messaging in other situations, or potential negative consequences, are not yet known.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Non‐speech oral motor treatment for children with developmental speech sound disorders

We reviewed the evidence on the effects of non‐speech oral motor treatment (NSOMT) for treating children with developmental speech sound disorders who have speech errors.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Pregnancy and birth: Ultrasound scans in pregnancy

Many pregnant women and their partners look forward to ultrasound scans. But getting that prized first picture of your child is of course not the reason that all pregnant women in Germany are offered ultrasound scans. Rather, they are done to make sure that the pregnancy is progressing normally and the child is developing well.In Germany, pregnant women with statutory health insurance are usually offered three standard ultrasound scans at no extra cost. They are sometimes also referred to as screenings.The main purpose of these ultrasound scans is to determine whether the pregnancy and the child's development are progressing normally. As a general rule: 96 to 98 out of 100 pregnant women give birth to a healthy child. But the ultrasound sometimes detects abnormalities that require further examinations – and maybe some difficult decisions as well.Doctors are required to discuss the advantages and disadvantages prior to an ultrasound. Every pregnant woman has the right to not have one or all of the ultrasound scans without giving a reason. Deciding not to have a scan does not affect insurance cover.It is best to discuss whether you want to see the ultrasound images and which results you want to know with your doctor before the scan. If you do not want to know the sex of your child or other particular findings, it is important to make that clear beforehand.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: March 25, 2015

Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 13, 2015

Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 24, 2015

Causes and diagnosis of lactose intolerance

Some people have digestive problems after drinking milk or eating dairy products. They may only tolerate very small amounts of lactose because their bowel cannot digest it well.Lactose is the main carbohydrate in cow's milk and other animals' milk. It is also in human breast milk. It is not present in vegetable products that are sometimes also called "milk", for example soy milk. Lactose consists of two sugars: glucose and galactose. An enzyme in our small intestine called lactase quickly breaks down the lactose into its two parts. An enzyme is a protein that creates chemical reactions in our bodies. Only after the two sugars have been separated can they be absorbed and turned into energy by our bowel for our bodies to use.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 15, 2010

Taping across the knee cap for adults with persistent pain at the front of the knee (patellofemoral pain)

Pain at the front of the knee (also known as anterior knee pain or patellofemoral pain) is a common problem which particularly affects those who do some form of sport or exercise. Typically, it gets worse when going up and down stairs, squatting, kneeling and sitting with the knee bent. It is a distinct and separate condition from knee arthritis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Types of depression

There are different types and severities of depression. Some only arise under certain circumstances, for example after giving birth.The most common form of depression is known as unipolar depression. People experience several typical symptoms such as feeling low, exhaustion, joylessness and a lack of motivation for at least two weeks. Depending on how many symptoms a person has and how severe they are, depression is classed as mild, moderate or severe.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 5, 2012

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