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Health effects of relocation following disaster: a systematic review of the literature

The review assessed effects of post-disaster relocation on physical and mental health. The author concluded that relocated individuals were more likely to experience psychological morbidity post-disaster, but no firm conclusions could be drawn for other outcomes. A lack of detail on study quality, and methodological limitations in the review process, mean that conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Provision of antiretroviral care to displaced populations in humanitarian settings: a systematic review

Providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) in humanitarian settings is challenging. Reports suggest that ART provision is feasible, but the evidence base is scarce. We systematically searched three databases for studies reporting ART outcomes among displaced populations in settings of conflict, natural disasters or political instability, and estimated overall mortality using random effects models. Fourteen studies were identified, six in conflict areas, five in areas of post-election violence and three in natural disaster settings. The pooled proportion for mortality was 7.6% (95% CI 5.3-10.0%) at six months and 9.0% (95% CI 5.8-12.2%) at 12 months. Loss-to-follow-up at six months was 6.3% (95% CI 4.3-8.3%) and at 12 months was 8.1% (4.9-11.2%). Adherence was comparable to stable settings. Strategies used to support ART provision included additional drug stocks and establishing peer communication networks. Good clinical outcomes can be achieved with ART in disaster setting, in particular if supported by regional collaboration, standardized drug regimens and contingency planning.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Allocation of Scarce Resources During Mass Casualty Events

This systematic review sought to identify the best available evidence regarding strategies for allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events (MCEs). Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (1) What strategies are available to policymakers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (2) What strategies are available to providers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (3) What are the public’s key perceptions and concerns regarding the implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? (4) What methods are available to engage providers in discussions regarding the development and implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs?

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2012
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Management of PTSD in Adults and Children in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, PTSD sufferers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. (The term ‘PTSD sufferer’ was chosen for use in the guideline on the basis of a survey conducted by sufferer members of the Guideline Development Group. People with the disorder were presented with a range of options such as ‘people with PTSD’, ‘patients with PTSD’ and ‘PTSD sufferer’ and asked to indicate which term they preferred; ‘PTSD sufferer’ was the term favoured by the majority.) It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with PTSD while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and their families.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2005
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Child and Adolescent Exposure to Trauma: Comparative Effectiveness of Interventions Addressing Trauma Other Than Maltreatment or Family Violence [Internet]

To assess the effectiveness of interventions that target traumatic stress symptoms and syndromes among children exposed to trauma other than maltreatment or family violence (Key Question 1 [KQ 1]), or children exposed to trauma other than maltreatment or family violence who already have symptoms (KQ 2); to identify subgroup characteristics that moderate the effect of an intervention on outcomes (KQ 3); and to assess harms associated with interventions (KQ 4).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2013
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Interventions for the Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Adults After Exposure to Psychological Trauma [Internet]

To assess efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of psychological, pharmacological, and emerging interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2013
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Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about post-traumatic stress and related symptoms in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their family members. Assessment and treatment of these symptoms are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 7, 2015

Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adults With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) [Internet]

To assess efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of psychological and pharmacological treatments for adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2013
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The Effectiveness of Interventions to Treat Severe Acute Malnutrition in Young Children: A Systematic Review

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) arises as a consequence of a sudden period of food shortage and is associated with loss of a person's body fat and wasting of their skeletal muscle. Many of those affected are already undernourished and are often susceptible to disease. Infants and young children are the most vulnerable as they require extra nutrition for growth and development, have comparatively limited energy reserves and depend on others. Undernutrition can have drastic and wide-ranging consequences for the child's development and survival in the short and long term. Despite efforts made to treat SAM through different interventions and programmes, it continues to cause unacceptably high levels of mortality and morbidity. Uncertainty remains as to the most effective methods to treat severe acute malnutrition in young children.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: April 2012
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Oral vaccines for preventing cholera

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review of the effect of oral vaccines for preventing cholera. After searching for relevant studies, they identified 48 relevant articles. Their findings are summarized below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Cancer-Related Post-traumatic Stress (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about post-traumatic stress disorder in cancer patients, cancer survivors, and their family members. Assessment and treatment of this disorder are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 7, 2015

Pediatric Supportive Care (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the unique issues that arise for children during their treatment for cancer, after the completion of treatment, and as adult survivors of cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 22, 2015

Common Mental Health Disorders: Identification and Pathways to Care

This new guideline covers the identification and pathways to care for adults with common mental health disorders, specifically depression, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2011
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Efficacy of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [Internet]

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the emotional disorder most frequently associated with combat and other potentially traumatic experiences that may occur during military service. It is often chronic and may be associated with significant comorbidities and functional impairments. Current first-line PTSD therapies include trauma-focused cognitive behavioral psychotherapies, stress inoculation training, and pharmacotherapies. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions include a range of therapies that are not considered standard to the practice of medicine in the U.S. CAM therapies are widely used by mental health consumers, including Veterans, and numerous stakeholders have expressed strong interest in fostering the evidence base for these approaches in PTSD. Thus, this evidence synthesis was requested by VA Research and Development to inform decisions on the need for research in this area.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs.

Version: August 2011
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Child Exposure to Trauma: Comparative Effectiveness of Interventions Addressing Maltreatment [Internet]

(1) To assess the comparative effectiveness of interventions (psychosocial and/or pharmacological) for children age 0 to 14 exposed to maltreatment in addressing child well-being outcomes (mental and behavioral health; caregiver-child relationship; cognitive, language, and physical development; school-based functioning) and child welfare outcomes (safety, placement stability, and permanency); (2) To assess the comparative effectiveness of interventions (a) with different treatment characteristics, (b) for child and caregiver subgroups, and (c) for engaging and retaining children and/or caregivers in treatment; and (3) To assess harms associated with interventions for this population.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2013
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Depression in Children and Young People: Identification and Management in Primary, Community and Secondary Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on the identification and management of depression in children and young people in primary, community and secondary care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, carers, and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for children and young people with depression while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and their families.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2005
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When pressure is positive: a literature review of the prehospital use of continuous positive airway pressure

BACKGROUND: Heart failure poses a significant burden of disease, resulting in 2,658 Australian deaths in 2008, and listed as an associated cause of death in a further 14,466 cases. Common in the hospital setting, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a non-invasive ventilation technique used to prevent airway collapse and manage acute pulmonary edema (APO). In the hospital setting, CPAP has been known to decrease the need for endotracheal intubation in patients with APO. Therefore the objective of this literature review was to identify the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in the prehospital environment.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Intraosseous access in the prehospital setting: literature review

BACKGROUND: Although the majority of Australian intensive care paramedics use the manual intraosseous infusion technique (MAN-IO), several other semiautomatic devices now are available, such as the bone injection gun (BIG) and the semiautomatic intraosseous infusion system (EZ-IO). Given the choice of devices now available, questions have been raised regarding success rates, accuracy, decay of skills, and adverse events.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Psychological therapies for the treatment of post‐traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents

We searched for all randomised controlled trials comparing psychological therapies to a control, other psychological therapies or other therapies for the treatment of PTSD in children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years. We identified 14 studies with a total of 758 participants. The types of trauma related to the PTSD were sexual abuse, civil violence, natural disaster, domestic violence and motor vehicle accidents. Most participants were clients of a trauma‐related support service.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Emergency Medical Service “Treat and Release” Protocols: A Review of Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness, Safety, and Guidelines [Internet]

This report aims to review the clinical evidence on the effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of Treat and Release (T & R) protocols and the evidence-based clinical practice protocols or guidelines regarding T & R of a patient at the scene by a responding trained paramedics without either transporting that patient to emergency department or referring that patient to another health care facility.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: May 27, 2014
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Medical Encyclopedia

  • Malnutrition
    Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when your body does not get enough nutrients.
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a type of anxiety disorder. It can occur after you have gone through an extreme emotional trauma that involved the threat of injury or death.
  • Amputation - traumatic
    Traumatic amputation is the loss of a body part -- usually a finger, toe, arm, or leg -- that occurs as the result of an accident or injury.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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