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Hypnosis for children undergoing dental treatment

Children are often anxious or non‐compliant during dental treatment. Anecdotal evidence as well as published articles indicate hypnosis can be used with great effect in paediatric behavioural management. The aim of this review was therefore to see what evidence there is to support the use of hypnosis with children and adolescents undergoing dental procedures. Only three randomised controlled trials (with 69 participants) fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. Two of these three studies reported positive outcomes in favour of hypnosis however statistical analysis and meta‐analysis were not possible due to insufficient studies meeting the inclusion criteria.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Sedation of children undergoing dental treatment

Fear of the dentist may be expressed as unco‐operative behaviour in children requiring dental treatment. Behaviour management problems can result in a child's tooth decay going untreated. While behavioural techniques play an important role in managing children, some children still find it difficult to co‐operate with dental treatment and may require sedation. This review examined the effectiveness of drugs to sedate a child whilst keeping them conscious. There is some weak evidence that midazolam administered in a drink of juice is effective, and nitrous oxide (laughing gas) may also be effective.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Psychological treatment of dental anxiety among adults: a systematic review

This review concluded that there was evidence that behavioural interventions can help adults with dental anxiety/phobia but more well-designed studies were required. The low quality of evidence and lack of evaluation on the clinical significance of reductions in anxiety mean that these conclusions appear somewhat over-optimistic.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Dental fear in adults: a meta-analysis of behavioral interventions

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this meta-analytic and systematic quantitative approach is to examine the effects of behavioral interventions for dental anxiety and dental phobia.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Dental Recall: Recall Interval Between Routine Dental Examinations

The guideline includes recommendations for patients of all ages (both dentate and edentulous patients) and covers primary care received from NHS dental staff (dentists, independent contractors contracting within the NHS, dental hygienists and therapists) practising in England and Wales. The guideline takes into account the potential of the patient and the dental team to improve or maintain the quality of life and to reduce morbidity associated with oral and dental disease.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

Version: October 2004
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Does a local anaesthetic injection in children and young people having dental treatment under general anaesthetic reduce pain after treatment?

It can be difficult when giving dental treatment to children and young people to do it simply using a local anaesthetic (LA) injection. The problem is often that they are too anxious or that they need a lot of treatment at once: For example, they may need many teeth taken out at the same time. In these circumstances, a dental practitioner commonly uses a general anaesthetic (GA) and administers the treatment in a hospital. In England, there are over 30,000 hospital admissions per year for children who need teeth taken out under a GA.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Social Anxiety Disorder: Recognition, Assessment and Treatment

Social anxiety disorder is very common and often coexists with other mental health problems. It can be severely detrimental to quality of life, with far-reaching consequences for education, employment and relationships. Only a minority of people with social anxiety disorder receive help, but this guideline demonstrates that effective treatments exist and it aims to increase identification and assessment so that people can access interventions to help them overcome this disabling condition.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2013
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Sedation in Children and Young People: Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures in Children and Young People [Internet]

Many children present to hospitals and dental clinics needing effective sedation or anaesthesia for painful or distressing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. There are many sedation techniques available but there is insufficient guidance on which techniques are effective and what resources are required to deliver them safely. Sedation is not always effective enough and will occasionally require the procedure to be delayed until the child can be anaesthetised perhaps in another healthcare setting or on another day. Consequently sedation failure is both distressing for the child and has major NHS cost implications. Excessive doses of sedation can cause unintended loss of consciousness and dangerous hypoxia. In comparison, planned anaesthesia is effective, but may have resource implications. The need for sedation or anaesthesia will depend upon the type of procedure. Some types of procedures are very common and healthcare providers and practitioners need to understand whether sedation or anaesthesia is the most cost effective method of managing them

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: December 2010
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A systematic review of patient acceptance of screening for oral cancer outside of dental care settings

This systematic review summarised the literature on patient acceptability of screening for oral cancer outside dental care settings. A comprehensive search of relevant literature was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHAL, psycINFO, CANCERLIT and BNI to identify relevant articles published between 1975 and Dec 2013. Studies reporting acceptability of oral cancer screening to undiagnosed individuals attending non-dental settings were eligible for inclusion. A total of 2935 references were initially identified from the computerised search but 2217 were excluded after screening the titles. From the abstracts of the remaining 178 articles, 47 full text articles were retrieved for further scrutiny, and 12 studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. In these studies, knowledge about oral cancer, anxiety related to the screening process, preference for care provision, and financial cost were influencing factors for the acceptance of screening. Written information provided to patients in primary care was reported to boost immediate knowledge levels of oral cancer, lessen anxiety, and increase intentions for screening. The majority of screening methods were entirely acceptable to patients; lack of acceptability from the patients' viewpoint was not a significant barrier to carrying out opportunistic screening of high-risk populations. In conclusion, the available evidence suggests that acceptance of, and satisfaction with oral cancer screening is high, particularly where patients have previously been educated about oral cancer. Further research focusing on patient's preferences would enable streamlining of the approach to oral cancer screening taken by any national programme.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Metal‐based, metallic fillings: is it better to repair or replace faulty metal‐based fillings for adults?

Fillings are used as part of general dental treatment to rebuild teeth after a patient develops tooth decay or damages the surface of their tooth in some way.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Tooth‐coloured, non‐metallic fillings: is it better to repair or replace faulty non‐metallic fillings for adults?

Fillings are used as part of general dental treatment to rebuild teeth after a patient develops tooth decay or damages the surface of their tooth in some way.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Eating Disorders: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders

This guideline has been developed to advise on the identification, treatment and management of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related conditions. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary group of health care professionals, patients and their representatives, and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with eating disorders while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2004
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Drug Class Review: Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs: Final Update 3 Report [Internet]

Atypical antipsychotic agents are used to treat the symptoms of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The purpose of this review is to help policy makers and clinicians make informed choices about their use. Given the prominent role of drug therapy in psychiatric disease, our goal is to summarize comparative data on efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, and safety. Ten atypical antipsychotics are currently available in the United States and Canada. Clozapine, the prototypic atypical antipsychotic, was introduced in 1989. Since then, 9 other atypical antipsychotics have been brought to market: risperidone (1993), risperidone long-acting injection (2003), olanzapine (1996), quetiapine (1997), ziprasidone (2001), aripiprazole (2002), extended-release paliperidone (2006), asenapine (2009), iloperidone (2009), and paliperidone long-acting injection (2009).

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: July 2010
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Community-based prevention programs for anxiety and depression in youth: a systematic review

This generally well-conducted review found that anxiety and depression symptoms were reduced in approximately 60% of programmes for young adults and adolescents within community (non-school) settings. Cognitive behavioural programmes were found to lower symptoms or prevent depression or anxiety. Automated or computerised programmes showed promise. These conclusions should be interpreted in light of possible language and publication bias.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Music for pain and anxiety in children undergoing medical procedures: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

This well-conducted review concluded that music therapy was effective in reducing anxiety and pain in children who underwent medical and dental procedures. The results appeared promising, but as they were based on largely poor quality studies the authors' conclusions should be considered provisional.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Effects of education of paediatric patients undergoing elective surgical procedures on their anxiety: a systematic review

The authors concluded that education of paediatric patients who underwent elective surgical procedures reduced anxiety, especially if the children were aged four to six years or older. Parents of children in the education groups also experienced lower anxiety. The authors’ conclusions reflect the evidence presented but methodological limitations mean their reliability is uncertain.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Dementia: A NICE-SCIE Guideline on Supporting People With Dementia and Their Carers in Health and Social Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of health and social care professionals, a person with dementia, carers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to practitioners and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with dementia while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for people with dementia and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2007
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The effectiveness of hypnosis for the treatment of anxiety: a systematic review

The authors concluded that the evidence from current randomised controlled trials was insufficient to support the use of hypnosis for the treatment of anxiety. The authors' conclusion is supported by the evidence provided, but it is based on trials with small samples and of low methodological quality.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

When To Suspect Child Maltreatment

This guidance provides a summary of the clinical features associated with maltreatment (alerting features) that may be observed when a child presents to healthcare professionals. Its purpose is to raise awareness and help healthcare professionals who are not specialists in child protection to identify children who may be being maltreated. It does not give healthcare professionals recommendations on how to diagnose, confirm or disprove child maltreatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2009
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Diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) in Children and Young People: Diagnosis and Management

Diabetes is a long-term condition that can have a major impact on the life of a child or young person, as well as their family or carers. In addition to insulin therapy, diabetes management should include education, support and access to psychological services, as detailed here and in this guideline. Preparations should also be made for the transition from paediatric to adult services, which have a somewhat different model of care and evidence base.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2015
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