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Treatment of Barrett's oesophagus

One of the two main types of oesophageal (gullet) cancer, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, is rapidly increasing in incidence in the western world. The prognosis for patients treated for oesophageal adenocarcinoma is appalling with fewer than 15% of individuals surviving beyond five years. Barrett’s oesophagus has been identified as the pre‐cancerous stage of adenocarcinoma. It is recognised that Barrett's oesophagus develops as a complication of acid and bile reflux which commonly, but not inevitably, leads to heartburn symptoms. In response to these injurious agents, the normal squamous lining of the oesophagus is replaced by a columnar lining resembling the lining of the intestine. This intestinal subtype has the highest risk of malignancy and the term Barrett's oesophagus is used only for this subtype in many areas of the world, and in most research publications. Barrett's oesophagus can gradually progress to adenocarcinoma through a series of stages called dysplasia which can be identified in biopsies examined under the microscope.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Interventions for actinic keratoses

Actinic keratoses are a skin disease caused by long‐term sun exposure. Damaged skin shows small, red, rough, scaly, flat spots called actinic keratoses or lesions, which feel like patches of dry skin. Symptoms such as bleeding and pain can be associated with actinic keratoses. Moreover, actinic keratoses have the potential to develop into skin cancer if left untreated. The reasons for treatment may include cosmetic appearance, relief of symptoms, or prevention of skin cancer. Treatment can be directed either at individual lesions or to larger areas of the skin where several visible and less visible lesions occur (field‐directed treatment).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatments for cutaneous Bowen's disease

Bowen's disease is the clinical term for a particular precancerous skin lesion. These lesions rarely cause patients any symptoms, but appear as well‐defined scaly patches on sun‐exposed skin, commonly in those over 60 years. They occur more in women and most frequently involve the lower legs of those affected in the UK. It is not known why, but the body sites most commonly affected vary across different countries. In general, people with Bowen's disease have an excellent prognosis because the disease is typically slow to develop and responds favourably to treatment. Lesions are usually slow‐growing, and although they are not life‐threatening, there is a small risk of progression to a skin cancer (estimated to be 3%) known as invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Imaging guided surgery for brain tumours

Surgery has a key role in the management of many types of brain tumour. In some types of brain tumour the amount that can be removed by the surgeon is very important in helping patients live longer and feel better. However, sometimes removing a brain tumour can be difficult, because it either looks like normal brain tissue or is near brain tissue that is very important to making people function normally. New methods of visualising tumours during surgery have been developed to help surgeons better identify tumour from normal brain tissue.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

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