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Results: 13

Pelvimetry for fetal cephalic presentations at or near term

Too little evidence to show whether measuring the size of the woman's pelvis (pelvimetry) is beneficial when the baby is in a cephalic position.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Does delivery of home care by outreach nurses improve outcomes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

Home visits from nurses for people with chronic lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD ‐ a combinations of emphysema and chronic bronchitis) aim to help people maintain their health and reduce the need for hospital stays. The nurses delivering this care aim to help people use their treatments well, provide education about coping strategies, and monitor the lung disease. However, this review of nine randomised controlled trial found that home care resulted in an improvement in people's quality of life, but has an unpredictable effect on the risk of being admitted to hospital. We could only find information on the cost of care from one study, but this indicated that home care was an expensive form of care. More research is needed to confirm the usefulness of home visits for people with COPD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Administration of prostaglandins to pregnant women before caesarean section to prevent breathing difficulties in newborn babies

Respiratory difficulties in newborn babies are a common complication following birth. They are more frequent with caesarean section and when the pregnant woman is operated on before labour starts than when she is in labour. Prostaglandins are a group of substances that have been used successfully to induce labour in pregnant women. They also have the potential to help the lungs of the newborn to adapt to breathing air after delivery, by removing fluid from the lungs and increasing surfactant secretion. Caesarean sections are performed more frequently worldwide and it is important to find interventions that improve the newborn's breathing following this surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

External cephalic version for breech presentation before term

Babies born bottom first (in the breech position) may have more problems during birth than those who are born head first (in the cephalic position) because there may be some delay in birth of the head and pressure on the umbilical cord as the head passes through the birth canal. During an external cephalic version (ECV) a breech baby is turned to the head down position by gently pushing on the mother's abdomen. Research shows that ECV after 37 weeks reduces the number of babies in the breech position at full term, and the number of caesarean sections.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Caesarean section for non‐medical reasons at term

Childbirth is a profound and powerful human experience. Women often describe feelings of empowerment, elation and achievement, although other women's experiences include trauma, fear, pain, and loss of control. The way women give birth, either vaginally or by caesarean section, is likely to impact on their feelings. In recent years, caesareans have become safer due to improved anaesthesia and improved surgical techniques, along with the routine use of drugs at surgery to combat the increased risk of infection and blood clots in the mother. However, caesarean section remains a surgical procedure accompanied by abdominal and uterine incisions, scarring and adhesions. There is also evidence of an increased chance of problems in subsequent pregnancies for both women and babies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Indigenous healthcare worker involvement for indigenous adults and children with asthma

World‐wide indigenous people with asthma are disproportionately represented in the severe end of the disease spectrum. Appropriate models of care are important in the successful delivery of services, and are likely contributors to improved outcomes for people with asthma. In this review, we examined if involvement of an indigenous healthcare worker (IHW) (when compared to absence of an IHW) in asthma education programs improves asthma related outcomes in Indigenous children and adults with asthma. There was only one study involving 113 people eligible for inclusion in this review. The participants showed improvement in the patient's asthma knowledge score, the parent's asthma skill score and a reduction in the number of days missed from school in children who were cared for by an indigenous healthcare worker. However as exacerbation frequency was not reduced and there was only a single, small study, we cannot be confident of the results although we think it is likely that the involvement of IHW is beneficial. Nevertheless, given the complexity of health outcomes and culture as well as the importance of self‐determination for indigenous peoples, the practice of including IHW in asthma education programs for indigenous children and adults with asthma is justified, but should be subject to further randomised controlled trials

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Participation in rehabilitation programmes that include regular exercise, can improve the quality of life for people with heart disease

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) seeks to improve the function, health‐related quality of life and well‐being of people with heart disease through a combination of activities, in particular exercise training alongside educational and psychological support. Since the mid‐2000s, the number of published Cochrane reviews has grown to six systematic reviews/meta‐analyses of CR. These reviews assessed the impact of CR on different types of heart disease (e.g. following a heart attack, heart surgery or heart failure) or different ways of providing CR (e.g. in a hospital‐ or home‐based setting, exercise only programmes or exercise in combination with an educational or psychological intervention or both). The aim of the overview was to review the current CR Cochrane reviews to provide a 'friendly front end' to this 'portfolio' of reviews.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Effects of turning unborn babies from bottom first to head first at the end of pregnancy (around 36 weeks or more) for reducing problems during childbirth

The best outcomes in childbirth for both mothers and babies are when the baby is born head‐first. If the baby is in another position, there is a higher risk of complications including the need for caesarean section. In a ‘breech presentation’ the baby is bottom‐down instead of head‐down. External cephalic version (ECV) is a technique for turning the unborn baby so it lies head‐down. This review looked at the effects of using ECV on babies that were in the breech position at the end of pregnancy (around 36 weeks or more).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Chinese herbal medicines for threatened miscarriage

Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the loss of a pregnancy without medical or mechanical means before completion of the 20th week of gestation. The fetus is not sufficiently developed to have been able to survive outside the mother’s womb. Threatened miscarriage is a very common in early pregnancy. Most threatened miscarriages occur in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy and become evident as vaginal bleeding, abdominal and low back pain that persist for days or weeks. So far, therapies have limited effectiveness in preventing early pregnancy loss due to threatened miscarriage. Chinese herbal medicines are a part of Traditional Chinese Medicines and are made up of products from plants and some animal and mineral substances. They have become very popular and are commonly used as an alternative treatment for threatened miscarriage.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Short‐term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders

Common mental disorders include anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, stress‐related physical conditions, certain behaviour disorders and personality disorders. People with these disorders tend to have problems handling difficult emotions and often respond with physical and psychic symptoms or avoidant behavioural patterns. Such patterns and emotional responses are theoretically treatable by short‐term psychodynamic psychotherapies (STPP) because these therapies aim to improve long‐ and short‐term problems with emotion processing, behaviour and communication/relationships with others. STPP is thought to work by making people aware of emotions, thoughts and problems with communication/relationships that are related to past and recent trauma. This in turn helps to correct problems with emotions and relationships with others.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

School‐based programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse

School‐based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse have been implemented on a large scale in some countries. We reviewed the evidence for the effectiveness of these programmes in the following areas: (i) children's skills in protective behaviours; (ii) children's knowledge of child sexual abuse prevention concepts; (iii) children's retention of protective behaviours over time; (iv) children's retention of knowledge over time; (v) parental or child anxiety or fear as a result of programme participation; and (vi) disclosures of past or current child sexual abuse during or after programmes. The evidence is current to September 2014.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Chinese herbal medicines for unexplained recurrent miscarriage

Recurrent miscarriage has been defined as two, three, or more consecutive spontaneous miscarriages in early pregnancy, and affects a small number (1% to 3%) of women of reproductive age. Many pregnant women may not recognise a miscarriage until they experience uterine bleeding and cramping after the 10th week of pregnancy. There are risks of repeat miscarriages after the first pregnancy loss and the chance of having a successful pregnancy varies. Some recurrent miscarriages have underlying causes, including both maternal and fetal factors; specific treatments targeting these causes are effective. However, the underlying causes may not be identified and most recurrent miscarriage are unexplained. There is no universal recommendation for the treatment of unexplained recurrent miscarriage. Chinese herbal medicines have been widely used in Asian countries for centuries and have become a popular alternative therapy in Western countries in recent years. Many clinical studies have reported that Chinese herbal medicines can improve pregnancy and live birth rates by preventing miscarriage and promoting the continuation of pregnancy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Psychological therapies for post‐traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder

• Individuals with post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) and their families and friends.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

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