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Covering ileo‐ or colostomy in anterior resection for rectal carcinoma is associated with less anastomotic leakage, but does not offer advantage in term of 30 days or long term mortality.

Anastomotic leak is a breakdown of a suture line in a surgical anastomosis with a consequent leakage of intestinal fluid, following surgical intervention. Anastomotic leak is one the most significant complications that occur after performing a surgical intervention for rectal cancer. Anastomotic leak may increase morbidity, mortality and the duration of hospital stay. Use of a covering stoma may prevent the occurrence of anastomotic leak. This review assessed 6 randomised trials and found that the rate of anastomotic leak is significantly lower with the use of a covering stoma. However, there is no evidence that mortality can be reduced by using a covering stoma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Ileostomy or colostomy for temporary decompression of colorectal anastomosis

Anastomotic leakage after left‐sided colorectal resections is a serious complication, which leads to increase morbidity and mortality and prolonged the hospital stay. Proximal fecal diversion may limit the consequences of anastomotic failure. It remains controversial whether a loop ileostomy or a loop transverse colostomy is a better form of fecal diversion. This review included five randomised trials (334 patients), comparing loop ileostomy (168 patients) and loop colostomy (166 patients) used to decompression of a colorectal anastomosis. Except for stoma prolapse, none of the reported outcomes reported were statistically or clinically significant. Continuous outcomes, such as lenght of hospital stay, was not included due to insufficient data reported in the primary studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

No apparent differences in quality of life are found in rectal cancer patients with a permanent stoma when compared to non‐stoma patients.

For patients diagnosed with rectal cancer, surgery is the definite treatment. The surgical outcome is either restored bowel continuity, or the formation of a stoma. Traditionally the formation of a colostomy has been regarded as an unfavourable outcome, as the quality of life of stoma patients is believed to be inferior compared to that in non‐stoma patients. The included studies in this review do not support this assumption, although firm conclusions cannot be drawn.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Pre‐operative radiotherapy and curative surgery for the management of localized rectal carcinoma

Optimal preoperative radiotherapi for localized rectal cancer provide a modest improvement in overall survival, definite improvement in local recurrences, modest increase in the proportion of patients undergoing curative surgery, but is also accompanied by an increase in acute and late rectal and sexual function compared with surgery alone. A combination chemoradiotherapy provides further improvement in local recurrence.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Direct (primary) repair for penetrating colon injuries

A common treatment for wounds that penetrate the colon (part of the large intestine) is to attach the colon, from at or above the injury, to a bag outside the body via the abdominal wall (this is called a colostomy or fecal diversion). This diverts feces from the injury, to prevent infection and death. With improved critical care techniques and antibiotic therapy many trauma centers now manage their patients with direct repair of the colon to close the injury. The potential advantages are avoidance of complications of having an opening of the colon in the abdomen wall (stoma) to a bag, the need for another procedure for stoma closure, and the psychological and financial burden of stoma care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of anal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 11, 2014

Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of colon cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 2, 2015

Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about constipation, impaction, bowel obstruction, and diarrhea as complications of cancer or its treatment. The management of these problems is discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 6, 2015

Rectal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of rectal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 2, 2015

Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about nausea and vomiting as complications of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management of nausea and vomiting are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: December 12, 2013

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