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Chronic Kidney Disease: National Clinical Guideline for Early Identification and Management in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care

Publication of the second part of the Renal National Service Framework (NSF) served to emphasise the change in focus in renal medicine from treatment of established kidney disease to earlier identification and prevention of kidney disease. Allied to this is the knowledge that late referral of people with advanced kidney disease to nephrology services from both primary and secondary care is still at least as high as 30%, engendering increased mortality and morbidity and precluding assessment and preparation of those for whom conservative management is more appropriate.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).

Version: September 2008
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Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of Wilms tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 22, 2014

Making Health Care Safer II: An Updated Critical Analysis of the Evidence for Patient Safety Practices

To review important patient safety practices for evidence of effectiveness, implementation, and adoption.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2013

Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of kidney cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for kidney cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 1, 2014

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of Wilms tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 15, 2014

Diagnosis and Management of Metastatic Malignant Disease of Unknown Primary Origin

The term “cancer of unknown primary” refers to a condition in which a patient has metastatic malignancy without an identified primary source. This is a very heterogeneous disease in which the type of tumour, the extent of spread, and the outcome of treatment all vary widely. When categorising patients with cancer of unknown primary, one important factor initially considered is the cell type of origin of the metastatic disease. The majority of patients have malignancy which appears to derive from epithelial cells, and hence are regarded as having carcinoma of unknown primary. Patients with tumours of non-epithelial lineage (melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, germ-cell) form a distinct and important minority, since subsequent management can often be satisfactorily undertaken even in the absence of an identifiable primary source. Such patients are not considered in this guideline, since their care is adequately defined in existing guidelines for their specific tumour type. The term “carcinoma of unknown primary” (CUP) is used henceforth to refer to those patients with metastatic malignancy of epithelial, neuroendocrine or undifferentiated lineage whose investigation and management is considered within the scope of this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: July 2010

Drugs that aim to prevent the loss of protein or albumin through urine in people with sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease is a group of inherited disorders that often lead to kidney damage. High protein or albumin levels in urine is a strong predictor of subsequent kidney failure. It is common practice to give angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to reduce the level of protein or albumin in urine, thus protecting the kidneys from damage. However, little is known about how effective and safe these are in patients with sickle cell disease. This review included one study comparing captopril (an ACE inhibitor) to placebo. There were 22 participants in this study and the results were not convincing, with minor analysis changes leading to very different study conclusions. This study did not show that ACE inhibitors could reduce the level of protein or albumin in the urine. The level of creatinine and potassium in the blood were reported constant throughout the study. No serious adverse events were noted, although the potential for causing low blood pressure should be highlighted. More long‐term studies involving multiple centers and larger numbers of participants are warranted.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer in Adults and Children [Internet]

The guideline is divided into sections which cover in detail specific topics relating to twelve groups of cancers: lung, upper gastrointestinal cancers, lower gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, gynaecological cancers, urological cancers, haematological cancers, skin cancers, head and neck including oral cancers, brain/central nervous system cancers, bone and sarcoma, and children’s and young people’s cancers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Clinical Governance Research and Development Unit (CGRDU), Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester.

Version: June 2005

Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood neuroblastoma.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 23, 2014

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood such as cancers of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, reproductive system, skin, and others.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 2, 2014

Drug Class Review: Newer Diabetes Medications, TZDs, and Combinations: Final Original Report [Internet]

To compare the effectiveness and adverse event profiles of amylin agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, incretin mimetics, TZDs, and certain combination products for people with type 2 diabetes and for people with type 1 diabetes for pramlintide only.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: February 2011

Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about constipation, impaction, bowel obstruction, and diarrhea as complications of cancer or its treatment. The management of these problems is discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 10, 2013

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Medullary cystic kidney disease
    Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is an inherited condition in which cysts in the center of each kidney cause the kidneys to gradually lose their ability to work.
  • Kidney biopsy
    A renal biopsy is the removal of a small piece of kidney tissue for examination.
  • Sodium urine test
    The sodium urine test measures the amount of salt (sodium) in a urine sample.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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