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Atopic Eczema in Children: Management of Atopic Eczema in Children from Birth up to the Age of 12 Years

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007

Autism: Recognition, Referral and Diagnosis of Children and Young People on the Autism Spectrum

This guideline covers the recognition, referral and diagnosis of autism in children and young people from birth up to 19 years.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: September 2011

Pruritus (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about pruritus (itching of the skin) as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of pruritus are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 5, 2016

Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia: Management of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia in Children and Young People Younger than 16 Years in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Omalizumab for the treatment of severe persistent allergic asthma: a systematic review and economic evaluation

Study found that omalizumab reduces the incidence of clinically significant exacerbations in adults and children with severe persistent allergic asthma.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: November 2013

Drug Class Review: Newer Antihistamines: Final Report Update 2 [Internet]

Antihistamines inhibit the effects of histamine at H1 receptors. They have a number of clinical indications including allergic conditions (e.g., rhinitis, dermatoses, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, allergic conjunctivitis, hypersensitivity reactions to drugs, mild transfusion reactions, and urticaria), chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), motion sickness, vertigo, and insomnia.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2010
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A systematic review and economic evaluation of subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy in adults and children with seasonal allergic rhinitis

Severe allergic rhinitis uncontrolled by conventional medication can substantially affect quality of life. Immunotherapy involves administering increasing doses of a specific allergen, with the aim of reducing sensitivity and symptomatic reactions. Recent meta-analyses have concluded that both subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are more effective than placebo in reducing symptoms. It is uncertain which route of administration is more effective and whether or not treatment is cost-effective.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: July 2013
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