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Atopic Eczema in Children: Management of Atopic Eczema in Children from Birth up to the Age of 12 Years

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007
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Lactose Intolerance and Health

We systematically reviewed evidence to determine lactose intolerance (LI) prevalence, bone health after dairy-exclusion diets, tolerable dose of lactose in subjects with diagnosed LI, and management.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2010
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Safety of Probiotics to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease

To catalog what is known about the safety of interventions containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and/or Bacillus strains used as probiotic agents in research to reduce the risk of, prevent, or treat disease.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011
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Lipid Modification: Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and the Modification of Blood Lipids for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

This guideline updates for primary prevention, the NICE technology appraisal, ‘Statins for the prevention of cardiovascular events’ (TA94, 2007) and reviews and updates the recommendations made in the NICE guideline Lipid Modification (CG67, 2008) for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The scope for this guideline was limited to the identification and assessment of CVD risk and to the assessment and modification of lipids in people at risk of CVD, or people with known CVD. The guideline development group wishes to make clear that lipid modification should take place as part of a programme of risk reduction which also include attention to the management of all other known CVD risk factors.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2014

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