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Effects of adjustable gastric banding on gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal motility: a systematic review

This review concluded that adjustable gastric banding had anti-reflux properties, but worsening or newly developed reflux symptoms and oesophagitis were found in a subset of patients. Methodological limitations within the review, particularly the lack of quality assessment and lack of significance testing, make it difficult to verify the authors' conclusions, which may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Dyspepsia: Managing Dyspepsia in Adults in Primary Care

This national guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for the primary care management of dyspepsia symptoms and underlying causes in adults. It was developed for use by the National Health Service in England and Wales. NHS healthcare professionals, patient representatives and researchers developed this guideline, incorporating comments received from referees and from an extensive national stakeholder consultation.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - North of England Dyspepsia Guideline Development Group (UK).

Version: August 1, 2004
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Eating Disorders: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders

This guideline has been developed to advise on the identification, treatment and management of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and related conditions. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary group of health care professionals, patients and their representatives, and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with eating disorders while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2004
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Response of unexplained chest pain to proton pump inhibitor treatment in patients with and without objective evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

INTRODUCTION: Unexplained chest pain is potentially attributable to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or oesophageal motility disorders. Reflux chest pain may occur without heartburn. We explored the response of unexplained chest pain to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in randomised clinical trials (RCTs), differentiating patients with and without objective evidence of GORD.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Fact sheet: Heartburn and GERD

Many people have heartburn every now and again after eating a large meal, and will be familiar with the unpleasant burning feeling in their chest, just behind their breastbone. It is normal to belch (“burp”) after a meal too. Sometimes partially digested food comes back up into their throat or mouth from the stomach. This is known as regurgitation, and is associated with a sour taste in your mouth. Up to 20 out of 100 people living in Western countries regularly have problems like heartburn or regurgitation. Although both of these can be unpleasant, they do not usually lead to other health problems. But if you have very frequent or severe heartburn, often have regurgitation, and feel that it is having a big effect on your everyday life, you may have what is known as “gastro-esophageal reflux disease”, or GERD for short. “Gastro-esophageal” means “stomach and food pipe”.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 13, 2012

Nausea and Vomiting (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about nausea and vomiting as complications of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management of nausea and vomiting are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 3, 2014

Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about constipation, impaction, bowel obstruction, and diarrhea as complications of cancer or its treatment. The management of these problems is discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 28, 2014

Comparative Effectiveness of Management Strategies for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Update [Internet]

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common health conditions affecting Americans. Despite the availability of medical, surgical, and endoscopic options, optimal management strategies remain unsettled.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2011
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Interventions for Feeding and Nutrition in Cerebral Palsy [Internet]

The Vanderbilt Evidence-based Practice Center examined the effects of available interventions for feeding and nutrition problems that have been evaluated in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2013
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Osteoarthritis: National Clinical Guideline for Care and Management in Adults

This guideline applies to people with a working diagnosis of osteoarthritis who present for treatment or whose activities of daily living are significantly affected by their osteoarthritis. The management of neck or back pain related to degenerative changes in spine are not part of this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions (UK).

Version: 2008
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Drug Class Review: Newer Diabetes Medications, TZDs, and Combinations: Final Original Report [Internet]

To compare the effectiveness and adverse event profiles of amylin agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, incretin mimetics, TZDs, and certain combination products for people with type 2 diabetes and for people with type 1 diabetes for pramlintide only.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: February 2011

Lactose Intolerance and Health

We systematically reviewed evidence to determine lactose intolerance (LI) prevalence, bone health after dairy-exclusion diets, tolerable dose of lactose in subjects with diagnosed LI, and management.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2010
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Drug Class Review: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Final Report Update 5 [Internet]

Proton pump inhibitors decrease secretion of gastric acid. They act by blocking the last enzyme in the system that actively transports acid from gastric parietal cells into the gastrointestinal lumen, hydrogen–potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the proton pump. Omeprazole, the first drug in this class, was introduced in 1989. Since then, 4 other proton pump inhibitors have been introduced: lansoprazole (1995), rabeprazole (1999), pantoprazole (2000), and esomeprazole (2001). In 2003 omeprazole became available over-the-counter in the United States. The purpose of this review is to compare the benefits and harms of different PPIs.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2009
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Drug Class Review: Newer Antiemetics: Final Report Update 1 [Internet]

Nausea and vomiting are major concerns for patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery with general anesthesia. Risk factors associated with chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting include emetogenicity of the chemotherapy regimen, dose, speed of intravenous infusion, female gender, age under 50 years, history of ethanol consumption, and history of prior chemotherapy. Factors predictive of radiation therapy-induced nausea and vomiting include site of irradiation (in particular, total body irradiation and radiation fields that include the abdomen), total field size, dose per fraction, age, and predisposition for emesis (history of sickness during pregnancy or motion sickness). Female gender, a history of motion sickness or prior postoperative nausea and vomiting, nonsmoking status, and use of postoperative opioids have been suggested as factors predictive of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The objective of this review was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of newer antiemetic drugs including the 5-HT3 and NK-1 antagonists.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: January 2009
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Pain (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about pain as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of cancer-associated pain are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: September 3, 2014

Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer in Adults and Children [Internet]

The guideline is divided into sections which cover in detail specific topics relating to twelve groups of cancers: lung, upper gastrointestinal cancers, lower gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, gynaecological cancers, urological cancers, haematological cancers, skin cancers, head and neck including oral cancers, brain/central nervous system cancers, bone and sarcoma, and children’s and young people’s cancers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Clinical Governance Research and Development Unit (CGRDU), Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester.

Version: June 2005

Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: a systematic review

This review assessed eosinophilic oesophagitis, including the efficacy of five different therapies, in adults. The authors reported that one trial with corticosteroids before bougienage may reduce active inflammation and the complication rate. However, the authors' findings should be not be relied upon, as this was a very poorly reported review that included a large number of very small, poor-quality studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Endoscopic balloon dilation versus Botox injection for managing achalasia (a condition causing difficulty in swallowing)

Achalasia is an oesophageal motility disorder which results in increased lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) tone and symptoms of difficulty swallowing. Treatments are aimed at reducing the tone of the LOS and include the endoscopic options of pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin (BTX) injection. We set out to undertake a systematic review comparing randomised controlled trials that examined the efficacy and safety of PD and BTX injection in patients with achalasia. Six randomised controlled trials were reviewed, and four were suitable for meta‐analysis. Meta‐analysis suggested that, although both interventions have similar initial response rates, the remission rates at 6 and 12 months were significantly greater with PD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults: Diagnosis and Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Primary Care [Internet]

This guideline covers areas relevant to the diagnosis and management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) reflecting the complete patient journey, from the person presenting with IBS symptoms, positive diagnosis and management, targeted at symptom control. The guideline incorporates Cochrane reviews, published NICE clinical and public health guidance, Health Technology Assessment reports, systematic and health economic reviews produced by the National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care. Recommendations are based on clinical and cost effectiveness evidence, and where this is insufficient, the GDG used all available information sources and experience to make consensus recommendations using nominal group technique.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Nursing and Supportive Care (UK).

Version: February 2008

Nutrition Support for Adults: Oral Nutrition Support, Enteral Tube Feeding and Parenteral Nutrition

These guidelines cover most aspects of nutrition support in adult patients (>18 years) who are either malnourished or are at ‘risk’ of malnutrition. In some cases specific guidance related to patients in specific care settings or with specific diseases has been provided but in general the guidance is applicable to patients whatever their setting (hospital or community) or disease. The guideline therefore includes: information on the prevalence of malnutrition and the benefits of good nutrition; guidance on the appropriate forums for the organisation of nutrition support in all settings; guidance on who should be screened for malnutrition and when, along with the criteria for consideration when assessing patients’ nutritional status; the general indications for nutrition support together with ethical and legal considerations that may arise; guidance on the process and special considerations required to prescribe nutrition support and details information on the important parameters to monitor for patients receiving nutrition support; detailed guidance on the administration of oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition including; the appropriate types of access for enteral and parenteral nutrition and the optimum mode of delivering these; specific guidance on the management of providing nutrition support to patients with dysphagia; issues to consider for patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition support in the community; issues arising for patients and their carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

Version: February 2006
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Medical Encyclopedia

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    Esophageal spasms are abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach). These spasms do not move food effectively to the stomach.
  • Esophageal manometry
    Esophageal manometry is a test to measure how well the esophagus is working.
  • Scleroderma
    Scleroderma is a disease that involves the buildup of scar-like tissue in the skin. It also damages the cells that line the walls of the small arteries.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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