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  • Martine Crasnier-Mednansky2015 May 02 1:19 p.m. (yesterday)

    The role of cAMP in the glucose-acetate diauxie was not taken into account by the authors however if it is taken into account, interesting possibilities arise.

    Acetate utilization by the fast-switchers is suppressed during growth on glucose as shown by a biphasic growth curve indicating preferential use of glucose over acetate (Figure 1A, blue circles), and a nearly constant concentration of acetate in the medium to the switch point (Figure 1C, blue circles). In contrast, an extended diauxic lag is observed with the slow-switchers (Figure 1A, red circles). Both switchers however show identical growth rate during the first growth phase (red and blue circles in Figure 1A), same switching point in time, and same glucose use (red and blue circles in Figure 1B).

    A diauxic lag disappearance and biphasic growth are typically associated with addition of cAMP to the growth medium (Ullmann A, 1968). It was established that, during a downshift from glucose to acetate, the CRP-cAMP complex peaked during the first hour of transition, which correlated with an increase in cAMP (Kao KC, 2004). Therefore addition of cAMP to a typical glucose-acetate diauxie most likely will affect the diauxic lag. Moreover, a cAMP-dependent regulation of the aceBAK operon was previously inferred by the presence of CRP-binding sites within the operon and a strong glucose repression, as indicated by transcriptome data (Table 1 in Zhang Z, 2005).

    So, what if the fast-switchers are no longer 'dependent' on the cAMP signal upon entry in the second phase of growth on acetate (in other words there is no need for CRP-cAMP in the absence of IclR for the transcription of the aceBAK operon). It is then expected that the fast-switchers with an 'ancestral' IclR will exhibit a typical diauxic growth, which is what is observed (Figure 4A).

    As regards the slow-switchers, their growth pattern does not significantly vary from the growth pattern of the ancestor. They both resume growth on acetate after an extended lag, but very poorly as compared to the fast-switchers. It is therefore not surprising that introduction of the IslRIS1 in the ancestor bares no consequences on the growth pattern.

    A final note; micromolar concentrations of glucose were used for growth in the presence of both glucose and acetate (as indicated in M&M under Growth curve assay). The increased concentration of acetate in the medium from the slow-switchers (Figure 1C, red circles) should not occur at glucose concentrations used in Figure 1A as dissimilation of acetate occurs under aerobiosis in excess glucose.

  • Accidental Infant Suffocation.

    Davison WH.Br Med J. 1945.1 comment

    David Mage2015 May 03 10:38 p.m. (9 hours ago)

    This 1945 paper identified the prone sleeping position as a major risk factor for these infant deaths that were "entirely unexpected," that were first called SIDS by JB Beckwith in 1969. It took some 46 years for the medical profession to rediscover the prone position as a definitive risk factor for SIDS, when SM Beal and CF Finch published "An overview of retrospective case-control studies investigating the relationship between the prone sleeping position and SIDS." J Paediatric Child Health 1991;27:334-339. PMID:1836736

    Davison wrote about 318 infants dying in Birmingham, U.K., 1938-1944, as follows: "Quite a number of the children in all groups were found prone or with the face turned into the pillow -- borne out by post-mortem hypostasis -- suggesting death by obstruction to the air passages; and in the absence of other factors one might naturally conclude that death was caused by mechanical means." But that would be wrong because many of these deaths were "found to be respiratory or due to otitis media."

  • Dorothy V M Bishop2015 May 04 07:31 a.m. (33 minutes ago)

    This is a very useful study. Thanks. Will be sharing it with colleagues.

    Here in the UK we have been concerned with similar issues. We did some surveys using focus groups for those with trisomy X and XYY, and similar topics cropped up.

    We have not written this up formally, but we used the information as background when developing materials for parents and for children to help those deciding whether and how to disclose a diagnosis. These are freely available for download here:

Selected recent comments - more about this

  • Donald Forsdyke2015 May 02 6:08 p.m. (yesterday)

    DIABETIC PLASMA IS MORE ROULEAUGENIC THAN NORMAL PLASMA This fine paper reports an impressive in vivo method for evaluating rouleaux formation. The authors correctly state that rouleaux formation is "attributed to some changes in the plasma concentration" of certain proteins, "which modify the interaction between RBC." However, they go on to conclude that "diabetic erythrocytes have a higher propensity to form aggregates." To show this they would have had to study both RBCs from diabetic patients in normal subjects’ plasma and the converse (normal RBCs in diabetic patients’ plasma). But they do not report such experiments.

    Following their original premise, it would be predicted that, when suspended in plasma from diabetic patients, normal RBC (of the same blood group) would form rouleaux just as well as the RBC from diabetic patients. That the primary change is in the surrounding plasma has long been known. Indeed, normal plasma can be made rouleaugenic by either heating to generate polymeric albumin, or merely by slightly concentrating. In both circumstances, the plasma will aggregate autologous RBC (1).

    It appears that the aggregation is entropy-driven, showing a degree of specificity (like-RBC aggregating with like-RBC) analogous to the homoaggregation of macromolecules that can be induced by increasing the concentrations of surrounding but dissimilar macromolecules (2). The early history and theoretical implications of rouleaux formation are reviewed elsewhere (3), and in my webpages: see Entropy-Driven Protein Self-Aggregation at

    (1) Forsdyke DR, Palfree RGE, Takeda A (1982) Formation of erythrocyte rouleaux in preheated normal serum: roles of albumin polymers and lysophosphatidylcholine, Canadian Journal of Biochemistry 60: 705-711.

    (2) Forsdyke DR, Ford PM (1983) Segregation into separate rouleaux of erythrocytes from different species. Evidence against the agglomerin hypothesis of rouleaux formation. Biochemical Journal 214: 257-260.

    (3) Forsdyke DR (1995) Entropy-driven protein self-aggregation as the basis for self/not-self discrimination in the crowded cytosol. Journal of Biological Systems 3: 273-287.

  • Arthur Fan2015 May 02 2:00 p.m. (yesterday)

    The original trial by Hinman's has many methodology flaws, please read the comments under the original trial report.

  • Arthur Fan2015 May 02 1:59 p.m. (yesterday)

    The original trial by Hinman's has many methodology flaws, please read the comments under the original trial report.

  • David Mage2015 May 01 09:38 a.m. (2 days ago)edited

    "Close, but no cigar!" Human 5HT2A is autosomal. OMIM shows 182135 - 5-@HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE RECEPTOR 2A; HTR2A Cytogenetic locations: 13q14.2; SIDS and all respiratory deaths under 5 years of age have a 50% male excess suggesting an unidentified X-linked gene with a recessive non-protective allele with frequency q = 2/3 in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium may be involved (NB: 5HT2C is X-linked). See Mage DT, Donner EM. An explanation for the 25% male excess mortality for all children under 5. Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science 2015;21(1) doi: 10.1515/sjfs-2015-0001

  • Nursing Innovation Journal Club2015 Apr 30 2:47 p.m. (3 days ago)

    My junior honors class reviewed this paper as one the assignments. I thought I would engage the authors in a couple of questions raised during our discussions of your paper. 1- This is important work, particularly as there are many patient safety issues identified during the transition from hospital-to-home. Have the authors considered financial outcomes associated with interprofessional collaborative practice? What types of financial outcome variables would you like to see in future research? 2-The AHA recently posted new guidelines for treating patients with heart failure in long-term care facilities. paper 1- paper 2- How can your work in this paper be expanded to include outside organizations like long-term care, home health, etc.?

  • Peter Good2015 Apr 30 2:11 p.m. (3 days ago)

    I asked Dr. Cynober whether oral arginine, citrulline, or glutamine would be the best source of arginine for brain nitric oxide and creatine in ASD children. He replied it was controversial whether oral arginine or glutamine produces more citrulline in the intestines. Citrulline enters the brain, he said, but whether it generates creatine there, and the balance between production of nitric oxide (NO) and creatine, is unclear.[personal co

  • University of Kansas School of Nursing Journal Club2015 Apr 30 12:41 p.m. (3 days ago)

    Team 12: Stacy Hanson, Jen Huynh, Sami Johnson, Valerie Melin, Shannan Orpin, Chelsi Puskas, Chandler Schoen. SON Class of 2015.

    Background Introduction:

    As a team, we chose to review this article on quality improvement to emphasize the importance of involvement from all staff members in order to achieve optimal health system performance. The contents of this article covers topics both mentioned during our current module and in our previous microsystems course. During this current module, we’ve discussed the importance of quality patient care measures in the health care organization and its financial impact on the organization as a whole. The article examines this component by surveying all staff members of the hospital, including hospital and nursing managers, medical doctors, nurses, and records officers, to get a better perspective of what quality improvement means to them, how they utilize it in their practices, and what does it mean for the organization as a whole. The article also supports previous topics of managerial and leadership styles, and reflects positive evidence for the “bottom up” approach to making changes in the organization.

    As we prepare to begin our nursing careers, it has been emphasized that the greatest impact on patient care is bestowed upon the “frontline” staff. Not only will we be the faces of the organization, we will also be responsible for making the greatest changes in striving to obtain an optimal health system.


    In our quest to finding this article, we used CINAHL and Nursing and Allied Health databases, using “quality improvement,” “quality improvement projects,” and “nursing quality improvement,” as keywords during the search. We narrowed our search parameters to populate peer-reviewed articles published within the last five years. Our chosen article is a cross-sectional study conducted over the period 2009 to 2010 (Hashjin et al., 2014). As mentioned, the study consisted of questionnaire surveys to 75 hospitals across nine regions in Iran. The self-administered surveys were given to three groups that included managerial staff, clinical staff, and other health professionals. The survey focused on twenty-seven hospital indicators, in which “seven indicators was obligatory under the Iranian hospitals’ annual evaluation program” and the remaining twenty were voluntary indicators recommended by an expert panel (Hashjin et al., 2014). The study population of managerial staff, clinical staff, and other health professionals represent members from all across the hospital organization. The survey was created to analyze the perspective of hospital staff on the organizational, clinical process, and outcome quality indicators. The data found here allows us to reflect upon the different perspectives that staff have in regards to quality indicators and quality improvement. With this information, we are able to have a deeper level of understanding of what these components mean to them, how they perceive their role in the process, and what it means to the organization as a whole. We can then take this information to create an environment that places everyone on the same level, pinpoint the areas in which we can make the most effective changes, and make movements toward an improved system. As a team, we believe that positive patient outcomes can be obtained with the help from all members within the organization. Striving to make improvements in the healthcare system is a continual process that requires analyzing and reanalyzing of data and research to find systems that allow us to reach optimal status.


    The article found differences of perspectives from each population study group that impacts the overall perception of quality improvement across the hospital. Agreement existed across all three populations in regards to the importance of quality indicators, but variation could be detected when surveyed on how these indicators are used in their practices. The most interesting finding in the article is the gap between “theory and practice in the utilization of quality indicators by hospital frontline staff,” (Hashjin et al., 2014). It seems as though the approach of implementing quality indicators from the “top down “ was losing effectiveness as it made its way to the clinical staff members. According to Hashjin et al. (2014), “ having a top-down implementation method may not be sufficient to achieve a maximum expected implementation and effective application of quality indicators.” It was also concluded that a different approach to maximizing the importance of quality indicators and improvements was to target clinical staff and increase their involvement in the development. Being involved with the development of quality indicators from the start and directing progress allows for the overall increase in autonomy and ownership in clinical staff. In comparing the U.S to Iran, we have come across similar obstacles in achieving regulated quality indicators. Similarly, we have discovered that the approach to getting people interested and involved is to start from the bottom and to move upward.

    Limitations to the study included non-response and exclusion of 48.7% of the questionnaires, leading to a lower response rate than anticipated. Also, there was no clear standardized classification of quality indicators for the study (Hashjin et al., 2014).


    We believe our chosen literature is important to nursing and nursing practice because it allows us to understand how quality improvement throughout the hospital is a group effort. This group effort begins with us as nurses. We must take into consideration the perspectives of other health care members and break barriers when solving problems that present with few answers. As “frontline” staff, we need to understand how large of an impact we can make in changing the hospital structure. We are also able to make the greatest changes in how patient care is delivered, and the direct impact we have on meeting quality indicators. As future nurses, we bring in the freshest perspectives to problem solving.

    Reference: Hashjin, A. A., Ravaghi, H., Kringos, D. S., Ogbu, U. C., Fischer, C., Azami, S. R., & Klazinga, N. S. (2014). Using quality measures for quality improvement: the perspective of hospital staff, Plos One,9(1): e86014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086014

  • L. Miguel Martins2015 Apr 29 05:10 a.m. (5 days ago)

    Interesting but puzzling. Schneeberger and colleagues (PubMed ID 24074867) also perform quantitative analysis of mito-ER contacts in vivo, in neurons, and reach the opposite conclusion: Loss of Mfn2 decreases mito-ER contacts (see Fig.6G). What is the explanation for this discrepancy?

  • Andrew Brown2015 Apr 28 11:23 p.m. (5 days ago)

    Our letter discussing concerns about the conclusions of this article can be found here Bohan Brown MM, 2014, and the authors' responses here Kiecolt-Glaser JK, 2014.

  • Chloe Wong2015 Apr 27 12:04 p.m. (6 days ago) 2 of 2 people found this helpful

    Thank you for your interest and comments on our manuscript. As we hope is clear from the Discussion section of our paper, we are very conservative in our conclusions and are the first to recognize the many limitations of doing this type of work. Please also see our articles highlighting the many important issues to consider when undertaking and interpreting epigenetic epidemiological analyses (Mill & Heijmans, 2013; Heijmans & Mill, 2012).

    There are many reasons why the standard research approaches developed for genetic epidemiology are not necessarily appropriate for epigenetic studies of common disease. To date, no real precedents have been set about the optimal sample-sizes needed to detect epigenetic changes associated with disease. The number of ASD-discordant twin-pairs available for this study was small - these are extremely rare samples, and we were only able to recruit and characterize six discordant monozygotic (MZ) pairs. Furthermore, it is recognized that standard multiple testing parameters (as used in GWAS analyses) are not necessarily appropriate for genome-wide DNA methylation data ­ first, most of the sites on the commonly-used Illumina EWAS array are actually non-variable, and second there is considerable non-independence between DNA methylation at proximal CpG sites. With the aim of identifying real, biologically relevant within-twin and between-group DNA methylation differences, we therefore decided to use an analytic approach that incorporated both the significance (that is, t-test statistic) and magnitude (that is, absolute DNA methylation difference) of any observed differences to produce a ranked list of DMRs. Of note, we confirmed the variation at selected loci using an independent technology (bisulfite-pyrosequencing) to rule out technical artifacts in the data.

    Because individual studies such as this are, by necessity, small, it is absolutely clear that findings should be treated with caution until they are replicated and/or validated using complimentary approaches. In this regard, it is noteworthy that one of the top-ranked differentially methylated regions identified in our twin study ­ located in the vicinity of the OR2L13 gene - is also a top-ranked differentially methylated locus in a more recent epigenetic study of ASD by Berko and colleagues (2014). Furthermore, OR2L13 was found to be significantly differentially expressed in post-mortem brain tissue from ASD cases compared to unaffected controls in the most systematic transcriptomic analysis of autism brain yet undertaken (Voineagu et al, 2011). Finally, this gene has also been implicated in autism by genetic studies that have identified recurrent CNVs spanning the locus in cases.

    The main concern raised by Professor Bishop is that methylomic differences are also identified within concordant affected and concordant unaffected twins. We would argue this is not necessarily surprising; given that it is not feasible to directly study brain tissue from our twins, and ASD is a subtle developmental brain problem, it's plausible (perhaps likely) that these individuals are discordant for other traits/exposures that are also associated with epigenetic variation detected in blood. That doesn¹t mean that differences specific to ASD discordant twin-pairs are not interesting. What is clear from our analyses is that i) the sites identified as differentially methylated in the six ASD-discordant twin-pairs are not differentially methylated in concordant-unaffected twin-pairs, and ii) the overall distribution of average within-pair DNA methylation differences is significantly skewed in ASD-discordant twins, with a higher number of CpG sites demonstrating a larger average difference in DNA methylation.

    We acknowledge that our data represent only the first step in identifying molecular variation associated with autism. For example, we cannot begin to tackle issues regarding causality in this study, and it is possible (perhaps likely) that many of the changes we identified represent consequences of the disease. As discussed, we were also limited to using DNA derived from blood, and moving forward it will be important to understand the utility of peripheral tissues as a proxy for inaccessible organs such as the brain. We are currently undertaking more systematic analyses in larger samples of twins and post-mortem brain to address many of the limitations of this study.

    Berko ER, Suzuki M, Beren F, Lemetre C, Alaimo CM, Calder RB, Ballaban-Gil K, Gounder B, Kampf K, Kirschen J, Maqbool SB, Momin Z, Reynolds DM, Russo N, Shulman L, Stasiek E, Tozour J, Valicenti-McDermott M, Wang S, Abrahams BS, Hargitai J, Inbar D, Zhang Z, Buxbaum JD, Molholm S, Foxe JJ, Marion RW, Auton A, Greally JM. Mosaic epigenetic dysregulation of ectodermal cells in autism spectrum disorder. PLoS Genet. 2014 May 29;10(5):e1004402.

    Heijmans BT, Mill J. Commentary: The seven plagues of epigenetic epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;41(1):74-8.

    Mill J, Heijmans BT. From promises to practical strategies in epigenetic epidemiology. Nat Rev Genet. 2013 Aug;14(8):585-94.

    Voineagu I, Wang X, Johnston P, Lowe JK, Tian Y, et al. (2011) Transcriptomic analysis of autistic brain reveals convergent molecular pathology. Nature 474: 380­384.

  • Dorothy V M Bishop2015 Apr 25 2:03 p.m. 3 of 3 people found this helpful

    This is a pioneering study using a clever design with a unique dataset. I am grateful to the authors for making their raw data available. A colleague had suggested that I might be able to use the methods described in this paper with some of my own data, and it was good to have the opportunity to work through the analyses and gain more understanding of what was done.

    Unfortunately, having done so, I became dubious as to whether the results show differentially methylated regions associated with ASD, as claimed. Over 23,000 sites were examined for methylation differences, and the numbers where discordant twins differed was not high. Most tellingly, when I used the authors' data to analyse concordant groups in similar fashion, the number of methylation differences was similar. This was true both for twins concordant for ASD (where there were 341 between-twin differences with p < .01, compared with 203 such differences in the discordant twins), and for twins who were concordant for low symptom scores on CAST (where there were 188 between-twin differences with p < .01 – here I selected the first 6 twins from this group to give an equivalent sample size to the discordant twins).

    In addition, the findings of correlations between CAST scales and levels of methylation at given site is not impressive, given that the number of correlations computed was over 90,000 (4 per site), so some would be expected to achieve low p-values by chance.

    I appreciate this is a new area, and exploratory work needs to be done, but given that the field of molecular genetics has learned the importance for controlling for chance findings when looking for associations with SNPs, I am wondering perhaps the same lesson will prove necessary when examining methylation data. With a twin data set such as this one, I would argue it is very useful to have concordant twins as a comparison group, as they can be used to give an indication of the amount of discordance between twins in methylation that is to be expected regardless of phenotype.

    I have uploaded the analysis file I used to compare methylation patterns in different groups here: so that others can check my working.

  • Torgil Vangberg2015 Apr 27 07:21 a.m. (7 days ago)

    We are working on making the script compatible with SPM12, and it will certainly be of interest to see if T1- and T2-weighted inputs will offer any further improvement in accuracy. Actually we did not expect much improvement using multi-spectral inputs since the T2 scans had 4 mm slices, but still it improved the agreement with manual tracing. The algorithm has also been tested with good results on a separate datasets that had 1mm isotropic T1- and T2-weighted images.

  • Acupuncture for chronic knee pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Hinman RS.JAMA. 2014.7 commentsDavid Keller and Arthur Fan also commented

    Qin-hong Zhang2015 Apr 27 00:08 a.m. (7 days ago)

    Acupuncture treatment for chronic knee pain: study by Hinman et al underestimates acupuncture efficacy

    Dr Hinman and colleagues [1] completed a Zelen-design clinical trial for acupuncture for chronic knee pain patients and concluded that neither laser nor needle acupuncture conferred benefit over sham for pain or function in patients older than 50 years with moderate or severe chronic knee pain. We disagree with authors because they failed to use the most effective acupuncture regimen in their trial.

    We consider that their treatment regimen is inferior for the following reasons. First, the dosage of acupuncture is far from adequate. The protocol specified the acupuncture intervention as a twenty minute treatment once or twice weekly for 12 weeks, with 8 to 12 sessions in total permitted [1]. Treatment compliance was not reported. Even with an assumption of full compliance, the study participants received only 0.67 to 1.0 session weekly with a total 160 to 240 minutes in 12 weeks. This was below the treatment regimen in the trial by Witt, et al. [2], in which participants received 12 sessions of 30 min duration, administered over 8 weeks, i.e., average 1.5 sessions weekly, and 360 minutes in total for only 8 weeks. It is worthwhile to point out that Witt, et al. had opposite conclusions. Second, the study protocol did not require deqi (a renowned acupuncture sensation), which is profoundly regarded as a prerequisite of a preferable acupuncture treatment efficacy [3]. Third, the paper did not follow the CONSORT statement of acupuncture [4] that requires details of needling, such as needle manipulation, depth of needle insertion, and points selected unilateral, bilateral or both. Fourth, the dose of laser acupuncture was 0.2J per acupuncture point, which was considered too low to achieve a clinical effect [5]. Previous study suggested that the minimum dose should probably be 0.5 J/point [5] . Thus it is difficult to evaluate if effective treatment regimen was compared against the Sham.

    Because the efficacy of acupuncture therapy depends on the dose and deqi of acupuncture intervention, it is premature to us to reach the conclusion that acupuncture is not effective to treatment osteoarthritis pain of the knee.


    1. Hinman RS, McCrory P, Pirotta M, et al. Acupuncture for Chronic Knee Pain A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2014;312(13):1313-1322.

    2. Witt C, Brinkhaus B, Jena S, et al. Acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2005;366(9480):136-143.

    3. Shi GX, Yang XM, Liu CZ, et al. Factors contributing to therapeutic effects evaluated in acupuncture clinical trials. Trials. 2012; 13:42.

    4. MacPherson H, Altman DG, Hammerschlag R, et al; STRICTA Revision Group. Revised STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA): extending the CONSORT statement. PLoS Med. 2010;7(6):e1000261.

    5. Baxter GD. Laser acupuncture: effectiveness depends upon dosage. Acupunct Med. 2009;27(3): 92.

  • Donald Forsdyke2015 Apr 26 2:56 p.m. (7 days ago)

    The data in this interesting paper seem not incompatible with the hypothesis that the need to prevent recombination with other organisms drives a organisms GC%. This anti-recombination selective effect (resulting in the reproductive isolation needed for maintaining species integrity) is something the entire organism has to adapt to. Having adapted, it seems not unlikely that, in some cases, an artificial changing of GC% (as in the Kelkar paper) would be deleterious. This would be particularly evident in the case of 'lower' species that had not superimposed other mechanisms for maintaining reproductive isolation. Absence of superimposed mechanisms would prevent GC% values from seeking new equilibrium positions. For more see my text Evolutionary Bioinformatics (Springer, New York, 2011).

  • Geriatric Medicine Journal Club2015 Apr 25 10:37 p.m. 3 of 3 people found this helpful

    This is a systematic review of non-pharmacologic interventions for orthostatic hypotension including exercise, FES, compression, physical countermaneuvers, head of bed up, water intake, and meal strategies. This article was critically appraised at the April 2015 Geriatric Medicine Journal Club (follow #GeriMedJC on Twitter). The full discussion can be found at: An interesting finding was that an acute bout of exercise may exacerbate orthostatic hypotension in short term. This review did not cover interventions like salt intake.

  • Martin Turner2015 Apr 25 6:01 p.m.

    This should be an interesting study, but I suspect the results may be ambiguous. I think you may be giving your diet group too much sodium. 3 g of sodium is 130 mmol which is close to average sodium intake. Extracellular fluid expands when sodium intake exceeds approximately 800 mg or 35 mmol/day (Freis. Circulation 53(4):589-595 1976). This study will require a substantial effort and it would be worth reducing the sodium intake of your diet group to approximately 800 mg or 35 mmol/day.

  • Arnaud Chiolero MD PhD2015 Apr 25 07:49 a.m. 2 of 2 people found this helpful

    Probably the best and more exhaustive review addressing the issue of overweight and mortality. Many health scientists have difficulties to accept the idea that a BMI in the overweight category is not associated with a higher mortality. To move beyond this controversy, studies assessing the effect of interventions to reduce BMI will be needed (see e.g. Chiolero Epidemiology 2015). Meanwhile, it seems difficult to deny these observations.

  • Pertti Hakkinen2015 Apr 24 3:48 p.m. 1 of 1 people found this helpful

    Readers may also want to look at (but it is not in indexed in PubMed): Curry, K. K., D. J. Brookman, G. K. Whitmyre, J. H. Driver, R. J. Hackman, P. J. Hakkinen, and M. E. Ginevan. (1994) "Personal Exposures to Toluene During Use of Nail Lacquers in Residences -- Results of a Preliminary Study." JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY 4: 443-456.

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