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Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Mar;9(3):681-91. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

Epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive diseases in Catalonia in the era of conjugate vaccines.

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  • 1Public Health Agency of Catalonia; Barcelona, Spain.


We investigated the incidence and distribution of cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and invasive Hemophilus influenzae disease (IHiD) notified by hospital laboratories to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia between 2005 and 2009. Incidence rates were compared using the rate ratio (RR) and 95% CI were calculated. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of the 6,661 cases, 6,012 were IPD, 436 IMD and 213 IHiD. The global annual incidence per 10 ( 5) inhabitants was 16.62 (95% CI 16.20-17.04) for IPD, 1.21 (95% CI 1.09-1.32) for IMD and 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.67) for IHiD. IPD increased in 2009 compared with 2005 (RR:1.55, 95%CI: 1.43-1.70) and IMD and IHiD remained stable. Pneumonia was the most-frequent clinical manifestation of IPD (75.6%) and IHiD (44.1%) and meningoencephalitis with or without sepsis for IMD (70.6%). The male:female ratio was 1.37 for IPD, 1.0 for IMD and 1.15 for IHiD. The age groups with the highest incidence were the ≤ 2 y and 2-4 y groups for IPD (66.40 and 50.66/100,000 persons-year) and IMD (14.88 and 7.26/100,000 persons-year) and the ≤ 2 y and ≥ 65 y groups for IHiD (1.88 and 1.89/100,000 persons-year). The most-frequent serotypes were serotype 1 (19.0%) in IPD and untypeable serotypes (60.8%) in IHiD. Serogroup B (78.3%) was the most frequent in IMD. S. pneumoniae is the most-frequent agent causing invasive disease in Catalonia. The main clinical manifestations were pneumonia in IPD and IHiD and meningitis in IMD. The main causative agent of meningitis was N. meningitidis in people aged < 20 y and S. pneumoniae in people aged ≥ 20 y. Vaccination with conjugate vaccines may reduce the risk of infectious disease in our setting.


Haemophilus influenzae; Neisseria meningitidis; Streptococcus pneumoniae; conjugate vaccines; invasive Haemophilus influenzaedisease; invasive meningococcal disease; invasive pneumococcal disease; serogroups; serotypes

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