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J Nurs Adm. 2013 Oct;43(10):497-501. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e3182a3e83e.

Alternative strategies to constant patient observation and sitters: a proactive approach.

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  • 1Author Affiliations: Director for Clinical Education, Practice, and Informatics for the Marin/Sonoma Service Area (Ms Laws), Kaiser Permanente Hospital, Santa Rosa, California; Project Manager (Dr Crawford), Southern California Kaiser Permanente Regional Nursing Research Program, Pasadena, California.


The evidence is inconclusive as to whether better patient outcomes for behavioral issues in acute care are achieved using constant patient observation. Nurse leaders at a northern California hospital designed and implemented proactive strategies to identify patients at risk for behavioral issues, developed evidence-based interventions to reduce the use of sitters and constant observation, and maintained or improved patient safety.

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