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Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;13(4):303-12. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70007-0. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Nevirapine versus efavirenz for patients co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

Author information

  • 1Epicentre, Paris, France. maryline.bonnet@geneva.msf.org

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In countries with a high incidence of HIV and tuberculosis co-infection, nevirapine and efavirenz are widely used as antiretroviral therapy but both interact with antituberculosis drugs. We aimed to compare efficacy and safety of a nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (started at full dose) with an efavirenz-based regimen in co-infected patients.

METHODS:

FINDINGS:

Between October, 2007, and March, 2010, we enrolled 285 patients into each group. 242 (85%) patients in the nevirapine group and 233 (82%) patients in the efavirenz group completed follow-up. In the intention-to-treat population, 184 patients (64·6%, 95% CI 58·7-70·1) allocated nevirapine achieved virological suppression at week 48, as did 199 patients (69·8%, 64·1-75·1) allocated efavirenz (one-sided 95% CI of the difference of efficacy 11·7%). In the per-protocol population, 170 (70·0%, 63·8-75·7) of 243 patients allocated nevirapine achieved virological suppression at week 48, as did 194 (78·9%, 73·2-83·8) of 246 patients allocated efavirenz (one-sided 95% CI 15·4%). The median CD4 cell count at randomisation was 89 cells per μL. 15 patients substituted nevirapine with efavirenz and six patients substituted efavirenz with nevirapine. 20 patients allocated nevirapine (7%) had grade 3-4 increase of alanine aminotransferase compared with 17 patients allocated efavirenz (6%). Three patients had severe rash after receipt of nevirapine (1%) but no patients did after receipt of efavirenz. 18 patients in the nevirapine group died, as did 17 patients in the efavirenz group.

INTERPRETATION:

Although non-inferiority of the nevirapine-regimen was not shown, nevirapine at full dose could be a safe, acceptable alternative for patients unable to tolerate efavirenz.

FUNDING:

French Research Agency for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis (ANRS).

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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PMID:
23433590
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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