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Results: 10

1.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2013 Dec;29(4):376-9.

Differentiation of Aedes atlanticus and Aedes tormentor by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the second internal transcribed spacer.

Author information

  • 1Vector-Borne Infectious Disease Laboratory, Environmental Health Sciences Program, College of Health and Human Sciences, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA.
  • 2Forensic Science Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA.
  • 3Brunswick County Mosquito Control, PO Box 249, Bolivia, NC 28422, USA.

Abstract

Using novel DNA sequence data, we designed a restriction enzyme assay that distinguishes Aedes atlanticus and Ae. tormentor, based on size polymorphisms. The restriction endonuclease Hpy188I digests polymerase chain reaction-amplified 2nd internal transcribed spacer products once for Ae. atlanticus and twice for Ae. tormentor, thus providing a useful method for identifying adult female collections that are generally considered morphologically indistinguishable.

PMID:
24551971
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2.
J Med Entomol. 2012 Nov;49(6):1189-97.

Sequence, secondary structure, and phylogenetic analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) in members of the North American Signifera Group of Orthopodomyia (Diptera: Culicidae).

Author information

  • 1Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. bdbyrd@email.wcu.edu

Abstract

Mosquitoes of the genus Orthopodomyia (Diptera: Culicidae) are little known and of uncertain epidemiological importance. In the United States, there are three Orthopodomyia species (i.e., Or. signifera (Coquillett), Or. alba Baker, and Or. kummi Edwards); they are all members of the Signifera Group based on the current morphological taxonomy. In the course of identifying recently collected specimens, a problem was found with the current key morphological characters for separating the fourth instar larvae of Or. signifera and Or. kummi. Internal transcribed spacer two sequences of the rDNA were obtained to resolve the identities. The Orthopodomyia internal transcribed spacer two ranged in size from 193 (Or. kummi) to 244 bp (Or. signifera) (mean = 218 bp) and were slightly Adenine/Thymine enriched (44.7% Guanine/Cytosine on average). Putative secondary structures reveal structural homologies (four domains) consistent between species that also feature conserved sequences specific to mosquitoes (e.g., a conserved motif on the 3' aspect of the longest helix: GARTACATCC). Sequence analyses suggest that in certain areas of southwestern North America, hybridization may occur between Or. kummi and Or. signifera. Furthermore, our analyses confirm that Or. californica (a junior synonym of Or. signifera) is indeed Or. signifera. To our knowledge, this is the first sequence-based phylogenetic and molecular analysis of the Orthopodomyia.

PMID:
23270146
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3.
Malar J. 2012 Jun 10;11:193. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-193.

PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature.

Author information

  • 1Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. mrider@tulane.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

METHODS:

Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein.

RESULTS:

Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically accessible desiccant will likely ensure accurate assessment of malaria parasite presence without diminishing PCR-detection of parasites in mosquitoes stored for at least six months.

PMID:
22682161
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3405449
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4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008 Dec;79(6):887-92.

Estimation of copy number using SYBR Green: confounding by AT-rich DNA and by variation in amplicon length.

Author information

  • 1Department of Tropical Medicine, and the Center for Infectious Diseases, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA. fue6@cdc.hhs.gov

Abstract

Although SYBR Green is used to estimate copy number, its fluorescence varies with amplicon length and adenine/thymine (AT) content. As a result, threshold cycle (Ct) values obtained using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are lower for longer amplicons (P<0.001) and amplicons with greater AT content (P<0.001). In contrast, neither amplicon length nor AT content affects the Ct with TaqMan probes or LUX-labeled primers. Because SYBR Green yields lower Cts with AT-rich templates and longer templates, it overestimates copy number for those templates. Therefore, sequence-specific methods such as TaqMan probes or LUX-labeled primers should be considered when using real-time PCR to estimate copy number if the amplicons generated are AT-rich or vary in length.

PMID:
19052298
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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5.
Virol J. 2008 Nov 5;5:136. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-5-136.

Ex vivo promoter analysis of antiviral heat shock cognate 70B gene in Anopheles gambiae.

Author information

  • 1Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA. skang1@tulane.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Anopheles gambiae heat shock cognate gene (hsc70B) encodes a constitutively expressed protein in the hsp70 family and it functions as a molecular chaperone for protein folding. However, the expression of hsc70B can be further induced by certain stimuli such as heat shock and infection. We previously demonstrated that the An. gambiae hsc70B is induced during o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) infection and subsequently suppresses ONNV replication in the mosquito. To further characterize the inducibility of hsc70B by ONNV infection in An. gambiae, we cloned a 2.6-kb region immediately 5' upstream of the starting codon of hsc70B into a luciferase reporter vector (pGL3-Basic), and studied its promoter activity in transfected Vero cells during infection with o'nyong-nyong, West Nile and La Crosse viruses.

RESULTS:

Serial deletion analysis of the hsc70B upstream sequence revealed that the putative promoter is likely located in a region 1615-2150 bp upstream of the hsc70B starting codon. Sequence analysis of this region revealed transcriptional regulatory elements for heat shock element-binding protein (HSE-bind), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), dorsal (Dl) and fushi-tarazu (Ftz). Arbovirus infection, regardless of virus type, significantly increased the hsc70B promoter activity in transfected Vero cells.

CONCLUSION:

Our results further validate the transcriptional activation of hsc70B during arbovirus infection and support the role of specific putative regulatory elements. Induction by three taxonomically distinct arboviruses suggests that the HSC70B protein may be expressed to cope with cellular stress imposed during infection.

PMID:
18986525
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2614971
Free PMC Article
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6.
Hypertension. 2008 Feb;51(2):454-9. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.102574. Epub 2008 Jan 7.

Bradykinin type 2 receptor BE1 genotype influences bradykinin-dependent vasodilation during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.

Author information

  • 1Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-6602, USA.

Abstract

To test the hypothesis that the bradykinin receptor 2 (BDKRB2) BE1+9/-9 polymorphism affects vascular responses to bradykinin, we measured the effect of intra-arterial bradykinin on forearm blood flow and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in 89 normotensive, nonsmoking, white American subjects in whom degradation of bradykinin was blocked by enalaprilat. BE1 genotype frequencies were +9/+9:+9/-9:-9/-9=19:42:28. BE1 genotype was associated with systolic blood pressure (121.4+/-2.8, 113.8+/-1.8, and 110.6+/-1.8 mm Hg in +9/+9, +9/-9, and -9/-9 groups, respectively; P=0.007). In the absence of enalaprilat, bradykinin-stimulated forearm blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, and net t-PA release were similar among genotype groups. Enalaprilat increased basal forearm blood flow (P=0.002) and decreased basal forearm vascular resistance (P=0.01) without affecting blood pressure. Enalaprilat enhanced the effect of bradykinin on forearm blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, and t-PA release (all P<0.001). During enalaprilat, forearm blood flow was significantly lower and forearm vascular resistance was higher in response to bradykinin in the +9/+9 compared with +9/-9 and -9/-9 genotype groups (P=0.04 for both). t-PA release tended to be decreased in response to bradykinin in the +9/+9 group (P=0.08). When analyzed separately by gender, BE1 genotype was associated with bradykinin-stimulated t-PA release in angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-treated men but not women (P=0.02 and P=0.77, respectively), after controlling for body mass index. There was no effect of BE1 genotype on responses to the bradykinin type 2 receptor-independent vasodilator methacholine during enalaprilat. In conclusion, the BDKRB2 BE1 polymorphism influences bradykinin type 2 receptor-mediated vasodilation during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.

PMID:
18180402
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2581632
Free PMC Article
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7.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2005 Mar;21(1):33-8.

Impact of West Nile virus outbreak upon St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District.

Author information

  • 1St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, 2800A Terrace Avenue, Slidell, LA 70458, USA.

Abstract

St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, experienced an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 2002, with 40 human cases and 4 deaths, most occurring from June to August. Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus was believed to be the primary vector of WNV during the outbreak, although circumstantial evidence suggests that Aedes albopictus also may have been involved in transmission. Dead bird reports were the 1st indication of the outbreak and were an excellent indicator of WNV activity; however, sentinel chickens were the most effective in tracking viral activity. Although sentinel chickens tested positive 2-3 wk after the 1st dead bird, they peaked at about the same time as human cases, and continued testing positive when viral activity was no longer detected in birds and mosquito pools. Lag time between the 1st positive sentinel chicken and the peak in human cases was 6 wk. If this trend continues in the future, sentinel chickens could be used to predict the peak in number of human cases. The 2002 WNV outbreak had a strong impact on operational budget of the St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District (88% increase above the 3-year average). Vector control activities accounted for most of the operational increase and consisted of targeted population reduction of known WNV-competent mosquito species. The goal of these activities was to prevent new human WNV cases. The 3- to 10-fold reduction in vector mosquito populations from May to August, together with a dramatic drop in number of new human cases by the end of August, indicated that our strategy was effective.

PMID:
15825759
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8.
BMC Public Health. 2004 Aug 5;4:33.

Field assessments in western Kenya link malaria vectors to environmentally disturbed habitats during the dry season.

Author information

  • 1Department of Tropical Medicine Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. jcarlso@tulane.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Numerous malaria epidemics have occurred in western Kenya, with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. A variety of hypotheses on the etiology of these epidemics have been put forth, with different implications for surveillance and control. We investigated the ecological and socioeconomic factors promoting highland malaria vectors in the dry season after the 2002 epidemic.

METHODS:

Investigations were conducted in Kisii District during the dry season. Aquatic habitats in were surveyed for presence of malaria vectors. Brick-making pits were further investigated for co-associations of larval densities with emergent vegetation, habitat age, and predator diversity. Indoor spray catches were completed in houses near aquatic habitats. Participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) were conducted with 147 community members.

RESULTS:

The most abundant habitat type containing Anopheles larvae was brick-making pits. Vegetation and habitat age were positively associated with predator diversity, and negatively associated with mosquito density. Indoor spray catches found that houses close to brick-making sites had malaria vectors, whereas those next to swamps did not. PRAs revealed that brick-making has grown rapidly in highland swamps due to a variety of socioeconomic pressures in the region.

CONCLUSION:

Brick-making, an important economic activity, also generates dry season habitats for malaria vectors in western Kenya. Specifically, functional brick making pits contain less that 50% as many predator taxa and greater than 50% more mosquito larvae when compared with nearby abandoned brick making pits. Further evaluations of these disturbed, man-made habitats in the wet season may provide information important for malaria surveillance and control.

PMID:
15296512
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC512294
Free PMC Article
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9.
Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:12-7.

Effect of varying chromophores used in light-activated protein solders on tensile strength and thermal damage profile of repairs.

Author information

  • 1Biomedical Engineering Program, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803, USA.

Abstract

Clinical adoption of laser tissue welding (LTW) techniques has been beleaguered by problems associated with thermal damage of tissue and insufficient strength of the resulting tissue bond. The magnitude of these problems has been significantly reduced with the incorporation of indocyanine green (ICG)-doped protein solders into the LTW procedure to form a new technique known as laser tissue soldering (LTS). With the addition of ICG, a secondary concern has arisen relating to the potential harmful effects of the degradation products of the chromophore upon thermal denaturation of the protein solder with a laser. In this study, two different food colorings were investigated, including blue #1 and green consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1, as alternative chromophores for use in LTS techniques. Food coloring has been found to have a suitable stability and safety profile for enteral use when heated to temperatures above 200 degrees C; thus, it is a promising candidate chromophore for LTS which typically requires temperatures between 50 degrees C and 100 degrees C. Experimental investigations were conducted to test the tensile strength of ex vivo repairs formed using solders doped with these alternative chromophores in a bovine model. Two commonly used chromophores, ICG and methylene blue (MB), were investigated as a reference. In addition, the temperature rise, depth of thermal coagulation in the protein solder, and the extent of thermal damage in the surrounding tissue were measured. Temperature rise at the solder/tissue interface, and consequently the degree of solder coagulation and collateral tissue thermal damage, was directly related to the penetration depth of laser light in the protein solder. Variation of the chromophore concentration such that the laser light penetrated to a depth approximately equal to half the thickness of the solder resulted in uniform results between each group of chromophores investigated. Optimal tensile strength of repairs was achieved by optimizing laser and solder parameters to obtain a temperature of approximately 65 degrees C at the solder/tissue interface. The two alternative chromophores tested in this study show considerable promise for application in LTS techniques, with equivalent tensile strength to solders doped with ICG or MB, and the potential advantage of eliminating the risks associated with harmful byproducts.

PMID:
12724861
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
10.
Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:6-11.

Absorption properties of alternative chromophores for use in laser tissue soldering applications.

Author information

  • 1Biomedical Engineering Program, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Haute, IN 47803, USA.

Abstract

The feasibility of using alternative chromophores in laser tissue soldering applications was explored. Two commonly used chromophores, indocyanine green (ICG), and methylene blue (MB) were investigated, as well as three different food colorings: red #40 (RFC), blue #1 (BFC), and green consisting of yellow #5 and blue #1 (GFC). Three experimental studies were conducted: (i) The absorption profiles of the five chromophores, when diluted in deionized water and when bound to protein, were recorded; (ii) the effect of accumulated thermal dosages on the absorption profile of the chromophores was evaluated; and (iii) the stability of the absorption profiles of the chromophore-doped solutions when exposed to ambient light for extended time periods was measured. The peak absorption wavelengths of ICG, MB, RFC, and BFC, were found to be 805 nm, 665 nm, 503 nm, and 630 nm respectively in protein solder. The GFC had two absorption peaks at 426 nm and 630 nm, corresponding to the two dye components comprising this color. The peak absorption wavelength of ICG and MB was dependent on the choice of solvent (deionized water or protein). In contrast, the peak absorption wavelengths of the three chromophores were not dependent on the choice of solvent. ICG and MB showed a significant decrease in absorbance units with increased time and temperature when heated to temperature up to 100 degrees C. A significant decrease in the absorption peak occurred in the ICG and MB samples when exposed to ambient light for a period of 7 days. Negligible change in absorption with accumulated thermal dose up to 100 degrees C or light dose (over a period of 84 days) was observed for any of the three food colorings investigated.

PMID:
12724860
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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