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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2015 Aug;103(8):2661-72. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.35401. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

The role of nanostructures and hydrophilicity in osseointegration: In-vitro protein-adsorption and blood-interaction studies.

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  • 1Department Materials meet Life, Laboratory for Materials Biology Interactions, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
  • 2Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland.
  • 3Department of Materials, Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
  • 4Department Materials meet Life, Laboratory for Biointerfaces, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen, Switzerland.


Protein adsorption and blood coagulation play important roles in the early stages of osseointegration and are strongly influenced by surface properties. We present a systematic investigation of the influence of different surface properties on the adsorption of the blood proteins fibrinogen and fibronectin and the degree of early blood coagulation. Experiments on custom-made and commercially available, microroughened hydrophobic titanium (Ti) surfaces (Ti SLA-Hphob ), hydrophilic (Hphil ) microroughened Ti surfaces with nanostructures (Ti SLActive-Hphil NS), and on bimetallic Ti zirconium alloy (TiZr, Roxolid®) samples were performed, to study the biological response in relation to the surface wettability and the presence of nanostructures (NS). Protein adsorption on the different substrates showed a highly significant effect of surface NS. Hydrophilicity alone did not significantly enhance protein adsorption. Overall, the combination of NS and hydrophilicity led to the highest adsorption levels; independent of whether Ti or TiZr were used. Hydrophilicity induced a strong effect on blood coagulation, whereas the effect of NS alone was weak. The combination of both surface characteristics led to early and most pronounced blood-coagulation. Therefore, nanostructured, hydrophilic Ti and TiZr surfaces may perform better in terms of osseointegration due to continuous protein adsorption and the formation of a layer of blood components on the implant surface.

© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


blood-material interaction; hydrophilicity; nanostructures; protein adsorption; titanium implant surfaces

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