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J Urol. 2014 Mar;191(3):703-9. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2013.10.051. Epub 2013 Oct 16.

Inflammatory and tissue remodeling urinary biomarkers before and after mid urethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence.

Author information

  • 1University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:
  • 2University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
  • 3Magee Women's Hospital, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  • 4University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, Maryland.
  • 5New England Research Institutes, Watertown, Massachusetts.
  • 6National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.



Urinary biomarkers were measured in women at baseline and 1 year after surgery for stress urinary incontinence, and associations with clinicodemographic covariates and outcomes were analyzed.


Preoperative and postoperative urine specimens from 150 women were assayed for inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interleukin-12p70, interleukin-17 and nerve growth factor) and tissue remodeling biomarkers (collagenase activity, matrix metalloproteinases-1, 2, 9 and 13, and NTx [N-telopeptide cross-linked collagen], epidermal growth factor and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor). Paired t-tests were used to compare changes in biomarkers during 1 year (significance p <0.05). Linear regression models correlated baseline and changes in biomarker levels with covariates (significance p ≤ 0.001). Logistic regression models, controlling for age, were used to analyze associations of baseline and changes in biomarker levels with surgical failure (significance p <0.05).


During 1 year interleukin-12p70 decreased (mean ± SD 0.53 ± 1.4 to 0.28 ± 0.62 pg/mg creatinine, p = 0.04) and nerve growth factor increased (0.034 ± 0.046 to 0.044 ± 0.060 pg/ml/mOsm, p = 0.03). Baseline NTx level per mg creatinine was positively associated with age and postmenopausal status (p = 0.001), and negatively associated with current estrogen use (p = 0.0001). Baseline collagenase activity per mg creatinine was positively associated with age (p = 0.001). Epidermal growth factor per mOsm, NTx per mOsm and interferon-γ per mOsm were negatively correlated with age, current estrogen use and UDI (Urogenital Distress Inventory)-irritative subscale score, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Subjects with lower baseline NTx per mg creatinine were less likely to experience surgical failure (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.93, p = 0.03). Changes in biomarker levels were not associated with any covariates or surgical failure.


Stress urinary incontinence surgery was significantly less likely to fail in women with lower baseline NTx levels. Studies are needed to validate NTx as a possible independent biomarker for stress urinary incontinence surgery outcomes.

Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


biological markers; operative; prognosis; stress; surgical procedures; treatment outcome; urinary incontinence

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