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Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug;36(8):2162-8. doi: 10.2337/dc12-1391. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Determinants of weight gain in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial.

Collaborators (1191)

Friedewald WT, Buse JB, Bigger JT, Byington RP, Cushman WC, Ismail-Beigi F, Gerstein H, Ginsberg H, Goff DC Jr, Grimm RH Jr, Probstfield JL, Simons-Morton DG, Gerstein HC, Yusuf S, Punthakee Z, Russo R, Anand S, Chrysler K, Cracknell B, Cukierman-Yaffe T, Gafni A, Guyatt G, Hall S, Kaszyca J, Lonn E, Mackie P, Reiding V, Shehadeh N, Tadeson B, Thompson K, Vallis M, Vasudeva V, Wilderman I, Wright D, Punthakee Z, Smith A, Stanton I, Capes S, Manjoo P, Valla T, Danby S, Harper W, Harvey P, Hunt D, Moroso A, Otto R, Prebtani A, Punthakee Z, Davis A, Capes S, Hill KL, McCarthy V, Edwards AL, Mitchell DJ, Clearwaters MA, Dielissen C, Gillam M, Hammond B, Jensen H, Kherani A, Lau D, Pringle V, Rabi D, Sigal R, Smith C, Walker M, Williams G, Joyce C, Parsons M, Rowe B, Burton J, Chandurkar V, CoadyMcDonald S, Gibbons D, Kovacs C, Murphy B, Smart R, Varghese S, Mereu L, Ryan E, Senior P, Kirkland P, Abe J, Dalton K, Gendall W, Germsheid J, Hartmann D, Jeffrys A, Kumar U, MacDonald C, Makhani N, Mawani S, Morales F, Paty B, Pick M, Schwanke B, Stark A, Tennant M, Varma S, Weiss-Aburto D, WerbiskiWood P, Woloschuk B, Zimmerman W, Bélanger CA, Gauthier S, Bahsali G, Barbeau C, Caponi E, Duchesne R, Dumas R, Gauthier P, Girouard J, Kandalaft N, Labbé M, Palardy J, Pilon M, Raymond J, Schiffrin A, Hramiak I, Tereschyn S, Driscoll M, Gehring M, Gonder J, Lincoln C, McBeth W, McDonald C, McDonald T, Pauli P, Paul T, Powers S, Ronald N, Trinh V, Vancer L, Walsh G, Lochnan H, Ooi TC, Maranger J, Bradley L, Buhrmann R, Cyr M, Gilchrist C, Hanlon B, Harley M, Jay K, Leech T, Malcolm J, McLean M, Parker E, Sigal R, Sullivan K, Yale JF, Segal SA, Ansari G, Renouf N, Allaire N, Alawadhi MA, Belfer B, Blank DW, Bouchard F, BuoyPhang S, Carter J, Coppin L, Dalpe D, Delpech I, Doran PM, Emmian F, Fortin S, Garfield N, Gosselin M, Horan S, Kalergis M, Koutelias S, Légaré C, Lombardo A, Morais JA, Quigley M, Renouf N, Riopel C, Riopel S, Rivera JA, Rochon G, Roy M, Salera M, Sherman MH, Shingler M, Staples HE, Ulyatt L, Yared Z, Leiter LA, Booth G, Sparrow L, Choi H, Bedard DC, Berger A, Berndl LA, Cheng A, Evalmplev V, Goguen J, Hanna A, Josse RG, Kalas JA, Perry S, Pike M, Elliott T, Dawson K, Kong J, Albiani D, Inducil M, Amoudi R, Broughton T, Hall L, Harrison B, Hirvi N, Lee R, Merkur A, Norman E, Paty B, Potter M, Stevenson D, Vafadaran A, Woo V, Berard L, Anderlic T, Austman K, Bernard A, Catte D, Darvill P, Hak D, Hutchison K, Janzen L, Klopak T, Mandock C, Mathen M, Mawani S, Mawani A, Murphy L, Nyomba G, Penner B, Pockett S, Russell S, Stockl F, Studney J, Sukkau R, Abbott C, Ur E, Yuille M, Archibald M, Clayton D, Cruess A, Davis N, Fong H, Frizzell S, Hanway B, Hoskin-Mott A, Imran A, Ingraham C, McCarthy G, Murdock H, Palmer T, Patterson AM, Ransom T, Shu D, Tuttle J, Probstfield JL, Kingry C, Line AS, Corson MA, Knopp R, Lipkin E, Sullivan MD, Johnson J, Griswold C, Liebert K, Brown A, Juliano D, Kurashige EM, Moberg S, Leader J, Ariani K, Karunaratne K, Azizad M, Chow C, Gutierrez H, Partamian J, Toven J, Toven J, Mular J, Sanders S, Haywood LJ, Kamdar V, DeQuattro DL, Wang L, Song Z, Becerra L, Cai A, Pruitt C, DeQuattro V, Failor R, Ellsworth A, Jackson N, Miller C, Britt D, Dobie S, Hirsch I, Khakpour D, Quaempts R, Stoffel W, Neighbor W, Cappocia K, Hawkins V, Tapp L, Force R, Macdonald M, Pettingill K, Liday C, Koester S, Pettinger T, Solbrig R, Waldron C, Woodhouse W, Hoover B, Lusk S, Wilcox T, Hachey D, Linz PE, Pepper PV, Coopersmith J, Kozlowski J, Chase C, Griffin C, Samuelson D, Gutierrez P, Gonzales C, Engle M, Coopersmith J, Griffin S, Lammers R, Leon J, Zirkle D, Hollingsworth S, Riddle MC, Hanavan KA, McDaniel PA, Swift R, Ahmann AJ, Gammell-Matthews SC, Karl DM, Burden V, MacNeil B, MacMurray M, Weiss J, Carlson C, DesRochers SK, Negreanu D, Stephens EA, Gale D, Wysham C, Weeks D, Kuntsmann L, Maxwell L, Yedinak S, Pena H, Kistler J, White J, Dudl J, Lyons L, House B, Murray M, Stevenson R, Wu P, Palma A, Briere S, Wilson T, Becker D, Harden K, Hawley C, Dailey G, Baron M, Gianella A, Jacobson M, Farro E, Philis-Tsimikas A, Banares A, Bravo-Medina A, Horne J, Esquer E, Morrissey R, Grimm RH, Kirpach BR, Bartkoske MM, Boyce CM, Druckman N, Gillett AM, Levin JA, Livingston GJ, Murray AM, Wood H, Margolis KL, Kempainen S, Madden M, Fareed MT, Hall K, Moor R, Wood K, Bergenstal R, Cuddihy R, Davick B, Hokanson J, Johnson M, Lausch M, List S, Monk A, Robinson R, Smith K, Whipple D, Damberg G, Hahn R, Koenig V, Magadan M, Sabin-Smith S, Stewart P, Strock E, Peremislov D, Gunyou K, Passi R, Ashanti C, Thomas L, Stoffels D, Seaquist ER, Mech MV, Benedict LE, Demmon DJ, Kendall D, Kumar AF, Martinson SM, Miller SA, Pease C, Rao JP, Redmon JB, Swanson JE, Wimmer JK, Okorocha Y, Stiles M, Kodl C, Chadha C, Peterson KA, Seaquist LA, Boese C, Cruciani M, Dodds E, Ek F, Feldman JL, Fontaine P, Lange CJ, Mendenhall TJ, Peterson AM, Rudelt A, Schrock TM, Spielman DP, Velasco S, Weinhand JC, Sperl-Hillen JM, O'Connor PJ, Busch ME, Chung A, Klein BK, Krugen N, Bunkers-Lawson T, Ekstrom HL, Gunderson HS, Johnson BM, MacIndoe JH, Prewedo DJ, Rawl JL, Roethke CM, Quinlan M, Fox CR, Bate BM, Cao QT, Ohnstad MM, Meyers PJ, Sivitz WI, Wayson SM, Lower TA, Larson L, Ahrens LA, Bayless M, Beck SE, Chahal J, Chenard C, Doelle GC, Guzman VM, Kabadi UM, Ochs KA, Rahhal A, Spanheimer RG, Snetselaar L, Smith K, Wells D, Genuth S, Ismail-Beigi F, Thibonnier M, Vargo L, Kelly C, Bongorno T, Dolish A, Pavlik L, Tiktin M, Isteitieh S, Bartlett A, Kulow T, Ismail-Beigi F, Krikorian A, Moore L, Richardson L, Coles-Herman E, Yee K, Frankino J, Jing M, Sood A, Hustak L, Julius M, Pavlik L, Ross T, Long L, Schwing W, Tiktin M, Sullivan MK, Strauss L, Behm K, Eskandari F, Hall C, Hayes D, Horowitz K, Isteitieh S, Madhun Z, Seeholzer E, Shina J, Taylor H, Schnall A, Huang S, Heeg M, Tang J, Belkin J, Lee MS, Joly T, Sadler LS, Griffith M, Hornsby A, Klyn K, Ospelt E, Long L, DeSmit M, McCann P, Schmidt NP, Gottfried C, Kulow T, Zaletal J, Kapadia MS, Smith L, Schnall AM, Dragmen L, Ellert R, Smith J, Leksan J, Sussman T, Huang S, Heeg M, Tang J, Belkin J, Lee MS, Joly T, Ismail-Beigi F, Hustak L, Julius M, Schwing W, Tiktin M, Anselmo J, Eskandari F, Daymeyer S, Hall C, Hayes D, Horowitz K, Isteitieh S, Johnson C, Kern E, Richmond MA, Richardson L, Roberts K, Shina J, Sood A, Suhan P, Taylor H, Watts S, Martin J, Moor L, Burtch B, Ober S, Strauss GJ, Leone A, Belkin J, Huang S, Frank K, Stephens D, Lee MS, Joly T, Hoogwerf BJ, Brakeman J, Matzinger M, Newsome J, Becker J, Bizjack S, Clingman B, Curtas-Thomas S, Depietro G, Ellert R, Horner C, Bunae G, Hamrahian A, Hawkins A, Head T, Iannica S, Jones L, Kaiser P, McCoy R, Mehta A, Olansky L, Orasko A, Reddy S, Ross D, Shockley L, Siraj E, Williams M, Zimmerman R, Hamaty M, Weiss D, Fagan KA, Hanslik TM, Farrell J, Brys P, Oligny M, Prokop K, Lenardic K, Karapanzcik T, Huang S, Heeg M, Tang J, Belkin J, Lee MS, Joly T, Akpunonu B, Franco-Saenz R, Gilmore J, Gilmore M, Godfrey L, Ross P, Bauer B, Chrisstie M, Lopez A, Mulrow P, Peters C, Pop-Busui R, Roman J, Smith C, Bick J, Blust Z, Nelsen PT, Marcus D, Osei K, Dziengelewski EA, Breedlove H, Boland D, Casey C, Boyer, Cataland S, Kearns P, Irwin JE, Schuster DP, Varga-Spangler JL, Bowles T, Weiland K, Arnold K, Evans T, Bouttamy J, Letson A, Craig E, Davidorf F, Cohen RM, Burton K, Craig J, Carter B, Harrer J, Hurd R, Lopez-Stickney D, Pritchard C, Pfefferman A, Ramlo-Halsted BA, McCormick C, Riley C, Strominger M, Knittel A, Groff G, Bailey C, Howald A, Anderson N, Bierschbach J, Tyzinski M, Smith B, Krug S, Hershberger V, Hutchins RK, Raymond LA, Thomas A, Kahkonen DM, Cushman T, Roman M, Stys AM, White K, Austin M, Chatterton C, Francis JK, Jones C, Kruger D, McLellan A, Whitehouse F, Higgins E, Levy S, Schoenherr A, Edwards P, Grunberger G, Aman LC, Bandagi AH, Russell KM, Tucker C, Abidova Y, Amirikia A, Narduccio M, Billingsly B, Bigger JT, Lopez-Jimenez CR, Bornholdt R, Busaca L, Ginsberg HN, Gonzales P, Gosh D, Love P, Kosok A, Robinson E, Steinman R, Watson C, Reyes G, Schubart UK, Mendoza M, Goswami G, Laufer A, Russo J, Vincenty N, Alderman MH, Carroll L, Sanguily MJ, Gorkin JU, Mayer AC, Ramos L, Sessoms V, Stewart A, Brillon D, Cordero J, Richardson MA, Wei E, Ganz F, Meyer BR, Paley J, Anderson S, Charles C, Dwoskin A, Chiong R, Hyams K, Lorber DL, Arenstein T, Depree P, Elmorsy AA, Wendel JM, Zintl LL, August P, Beck M, Goldberg MD, Hofacker MJ, Marotta-Kollarus M, Ocampo EJ, Resta CA, Tibaldi JM, Bastien A, Grudzinski S, Niblack P, Abreu L, Brobyn T, Brown K, Casale M, Dougherty D, Haddad G, Heintz K, Kelly M, Linneman D, Olivia C, Salvador MA, Zee P, Hyman D, Bastien A, Grudzinski S, Niblack P, Abreu L, Brobyn T, Brown K, Casale M, Dougherty D, Haddad G, Heintz K, Kelly M, Linneman D, Olivia C, Salvador MA, Zee P, Hyman D, Brautigam DF, Fischer R, Chiarot JM, Scharf DM, Nunn B, Carlson J, Flanders C, Hagen MR, Newman S, Gordon TA, Goland R, Tuck CH, Kringas P, Hey-Hadavi J, Montes J, Vargas-Jerez J, Salas-Spiegel J, Getaneh A, Ramirez J, Vasquez EF, Kranwinkel G, Durant SA, Donovan DS, Febres G, Hernandez C, Jonaitis MA, Mesa L, Banerji MA, Norton M, Patel P, Daly V, Hirsch S, Jazmin C, Khillan R, Mendonca D, Relingado A, Sandoval E, Tiewala M, Banerji MA, Norton M, Patel P, Daly V, Hirsch S, Jazmin C, Khillan R, Mendonca D, Relingado A, Sandoval E, Tiewala M, Bastien A, Grudzinski S, Niblack P, Abreu L, Brobyn T, Brown K, Casale M, Dougherty D, Haddad G, Heintz K, Kelly M, Linneman D, Olivia C, Salvador MA, Zee P, Hyman D, Goff DC Jr, Summerson JH, Crago L, Blackwell CS, Bertoni A, Blaine RL, Kirk JK, Spach RL, Williamson J, Calles J, Katula J, Wishnietsky DB, Feinglos MN, Jones J, Mason MB, Furst MA, Bean WJ, Gedon-Lipscomb G, Green JB, Parham T, Satterwhite BM, Thacker CR, Padhiar D, Noel R, Padhiar N, West S, Braden J, Francis A, Atkinson HH, Dibari M, Allen J, Stanfield J, Delvalle-Fagan T, Gordineer LJ, Gordon L, Gordon M, Smith SL, Yates H, Pedley CF, Zurek G, Baird M, Dunn B, Kinder W, Mauney S, Buse JB, Duclos MD, Kirby RE, Largay JF, McDermott NM, Goley A, Braithwaite SS, Dostou JM, Fasy EA, Kelly DC, Metz CE, Jeffries J, Rubin D, Vukojicik K, Miller JL, Besterman W, Norton SM, Weatherly J, Bishop S, Cross B, Nuss K, Surgenor M, Alley D, Farmer A, Foard J, White J, Wood Y, Grossm B, Dulin M, Konen J, Barringer T, Andrews K, Hoffman C, Morris C, Norton S, Tochiki P, Reinblatt G, Bruner P, Peace R, Stuart DO, Strickland J, Cummings L, Craig D, Stanfield J, Morgan J, Peace R, Stuart DO, Strickland J, Cummings L, Craig D, Stanfield J, Williams G, Crouse JR, Menon L, Marion S, Davis D, Cabrera B, Calles J, Chandler T, Ellis J, Kouba E, Riddle P, Myers E, Fonseca V, John-Kalarickal J, McDuffie RH, Asafu-Adjaye NO, Leger SM, Reilly P, Afner G, Arrey F, Asnani S, Borshard E, Boyd D, Cemo A, Chennur S, Dupart P, Garg R, Girindra GP, Gouda B, Itoua-N'Ganongo W, Innocent-Ituah I, Johnson C, Kuhadiya N, Kukreja M, Mangan-Mbondi I, Mason S, McLain C, Naylyanya J, Nazereth K, Nazereth S, Singh S, Thethi T, Varnado K, Williams R, Barzilay JI, Eley M, Bader K, Curry-Ball D, Goodman S, Stevens M, Cushman WC, Geraci TS, Walsh SM, Coley LG, Elam MB, Pickering DI, Huff C, Elam MB, Thompson CW, Lichtermann L, Peeples S, Turner-Bates J, Heimberg M, Childress D, Turner J, Jasper J, Coley J, Hamilton BP, Hamilton J, Kuzbida G, Hatten W Jr, Lancaster A, Haywood J, Luck J, Bannerman-Wood D, Hayden CT, Felicetta J, Bourne-Collo M, Svoboda ME, Clothier D, Deitz M, Flaugher C, Hayward P, Scheibe T, Velarde S, Heritage S, Nelson JP, Heritage D, Martinez C, Sweeney ME, Harrelson D, McConnell S, Watson F, Johnson R, Whittington L, Nanes M, Salles M, Rice C, Cowden C, Basile J, Ham DB, North-Lee B, Baig HA, Rehman SU, Mixson J, Nelson D, Kirchner KA, Hinton LA, Mack L, Adair C, James B, Spencer A, Jones A, Katz L, Richardson EA, Goldberg AG, Nieves A, Russo JE, Adams J, Sochalski SA, Coles M, Anderson S, Williams M, Hoffman D, Papademetriou V, Gregory B, Alignay R, Nylen E, Rajendran B, Hodges R, Amodeo S, Ross A, Notargiacomo A, Metcalfe M, Narayan P, Wojackovski D, Giddings S, Clark E, Pittler A, Davis R, Harris P, Waidmann K, Conwill L, Felton S, Chen A, Simmons DL, Cooper JJ, Dishongh K, Bates R, Bhaghayath K, Choksi P, Conley S, Elbein S, Faas F, Hamid Z, Johnson J, Johnson P, Mayo A, Moriarty MS, Nair G, Rani D, Rasouli N, Said S, Rassouli N, Rodriguez M, Thomas K, Watson K, Williams D, Makdissi A, Byington RP, Ambrosius WT, Anderson RT, Barnes J, Beal J, Bell C, Bonds DE, Burton S, Collins C, Cook D, Craven B, Craven T, Dunbar D, Evans G, Feeney P, Furberg C, Greven C, Griffin J, Harvin L, Hepler J, Howard L, Howard-Perdue LT, Hough M, Hwang W, Kimel A, Lefkowitz D, Lopina A, Lovato J, Lovato LC, Miller ME, Reboussin D, Rushing S, Sanders L, Sims L, Stowe C, Walkup M, Wilmoth S, Wilson K, Woolard N.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Identify determinants of weight gain in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) allocated to intensive versus standard glycemic control in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

We studied determinants of weight gain over 2 years in 8,929 participants (4,425 intensive arm and 4,504 standard arm) with T2DM in the ACCORD trial. We used general linear models to examine the association between each baseline characteristic and weight change at the 2-year visit. We fit a linear regression of change in weight and A1C and used general linear models to examine the association between each medication at baseline and weight change at the 2-year visit, stratified by glycemia allocation.

RESULTS:

There was significantly more weight gain in the intensive glycemia arm of the trial compared with the standard arm (3.0 ± 7.0 vs. 0.3 ± 6.3 kg). On multivariate analysis, younger age, male sex, Asian race, no smoking history, high A1C, baseline BMI of 25-35, high waist circumference, baseline insulin use, and baseline metformin use were independently associated with weight gain over 2 years. Reduction of A1C from baseline was consistently associated with weight gain only when baseline A1C was elevated. Medication usage accounted for <15% of the variability of weight change, with initiation of thiazolidinedione (TZD) use the most prominent factor. Intensive participants who never took insulin or a TZD had an average weight loss of 2.9 kg during the first 2 years of the trial. In contrast, intensive participants who had never previously used insulin or TZD but began this combination after enrolling in the ACCORD trial had a weight gain of 4.6-5.3 kg at 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS:

Weight gain in ACCORD was greater with intensive than with standard treatment and generally associated with reduction of A1C from elevated baseline values. Initiation of TZD and/or insulin therapy was the most important medication-related factor associated with weight gain.

PMID:
23412077
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3714487
Free PMC Article
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