Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Nov;38(5):1210-4. doi: 10.1002/jmri.23954. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Respiratory bellows-gated late gadolinium enhancement of the left atrium.

Author information

  • 1Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Medicine (Cardiovascular Division), Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale Medical School, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.



To compare bellows-gated late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with standard navigator-gated (NAV-gated) LGE for left atrial (LA) imaging, to eliminate the inflow artifacts associated with NAV-gating.


Eleven subjects, including six patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), were imaged with a 3D free-breathing NAV-gated and bellows-gated LGE. Motion compensation was compared by blinded grading of image sharpness and motion ghosting (0 = worst, 2 = best). Inflow artifacts in the right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV) and right superior PV (RSPV) were characterized on the same scale (0 = none, 2 = prominent). In patients, each PV was divided into four quadrants circumferentially in order to assess agreement about scar presence on both image sets.


Respiratory compensation was not different (1.7 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.5, sharpness, 1.6 ± 0.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.5, ghosting, P = NS) for bellows- and NAV-gated images. For NAV-gated LGE, inflow artifacts were more prominent in the RSPV than the RIPV (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.5, P = 0.046). Visually, inflow artifacts both obscured and mimicked the true scar. Disagreement on the presence of scar was found in 18% of the assessed quadrants, with 25% disagreement for RSPV quadrants (P = 0.01).


Bellows-gated LGE provides similar respiratory compensation as NAV-gating, without inflow artifacts, leading to improved assessment of scar presence.

Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


NAV-gating; artifacts; atrial fibrillation; bellows; late gadolinium enhancement; respiratory compensation

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk