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Clin Chest Med. 2012 Dec;33(4):667-80. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2012.09.002.

Newly recognized occupational and environmental causes of chronic terminal airways and parenchymal lung disease.

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  • 1Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, 15 York Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.


With the introduction of new materials and changes in manufacturing practices, occupational health investigators continue to uncover associations between novel exposures and chronic forms of diffuse parenchymal lung disease and terminal airways disease. To discern exposure-disease relationships, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for the potential toxicity of occupational and environmental exposures. This article details several newly recognized chronic parenchymal and terminal airways. Diseases related to exposure to indium, nylon flock, diacetyl used in the flavorings industry, nanoparticles, and the World Trade Center disaster are reviewed. Also reviewed are methods in worker surveillance and the potential use of biomarkers in the evaluation of exposure-disease relationships.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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