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Nature. 2012 Jul 18;487(7407):330-7. doi: 10.1038/nature11252.

Comprehensive molecular characterization of human colon and rectal cancer.

Collaborators (326)

Muzny DM, Bainbridge MN, Chang K, Dinh HH, Drummond JA, Fowler G, Kovar CL, Lewis LR, Morgan MB, Newsham IF, Reid JG, Santibanez J, Shinbrot E, Trevino LR, Wu YQ, Wang M, Gunaratne P, Donehower LA, Creighton CJ, Wheeler DA, Gibbs RA, Lawrence MS, Voet D, Jing R, Cibulskis K, Sivachenko A, Stojanov P, McKenna A, Lander ES, Gabriel S, Getz G, Ding L, Fulton RS, Koboldt DC, Wylie T, Walker J, Dooling DJ, Fulton L, Delehaunty KD, Fronick CC, Demeter R, Mardis ER, Wilson RK, Chu A, Chun HJ, Mungall AJ, Pleasance E, Robertson A, Stoll D, Balasundaram M, Birol I, Butterfield YS, Chuah E, Coope RJ, Dhalla N, Guin R, Hirst C, Hirst M, Holt RA, Lee D, Li HI, Mayo M, Moore RA, Schein JE, Slobodan JR, Tam A, Thiessen N, Varhol R, Zeng T, Zhao Y, Jones SJ, Marra MA, Bass AJ, Ramos AH, Saksena G, Cherniack AD, Schumacher SE, Tabak B, Carter SL, Pho NH, Nguyen H, Onofrio RC, Crenshaw A, Ardlie K, Beroukhim R, Winckler W, Getz G, Meyerson M, Protopopov A, Zhang J, Hadjipanayis A, Lee E, Xi R, Yang L, Ren X, Zhang H, Sathiamoorthy N, Shukla S, Chen PC, Haseley P, Xiao Y, Lee S, Seidman J, Chin L, Park PJ, Kucherlapati R, Auman JT, Hoadley KA, Du Y, Wilkerson MD, Shi Y, Liquori C, Meng S, Li L, Turman YJ, Topal MD, Tan D, Waring S, Buda E, Walsh J, Jones CD, Mieczkowski PA, Singh D, Wu J, Gulabani A, Dolina P, Bodenheimer T, Hoyle AP, Simons JV, Soloway M, Mose LE, Jefferys SR, Balu S, O'Connor BD, Prins JF, Chiang DY, Hayes D, Perou CM, Hinoue T, Weisenberger DJ, Maglinte DT, Pan F, Berman BP, Van Den Berg DJ, Shen H, Triche T Jr, Baylin SB, Laird PW, Getz G, Noble M, Voet D, Saksena G, Gehlenborg N, DiCara D, Zhang J, Zhang H, Wu CJ, Liu SY, Shukla S, Lawrence MS, Zhou L, Sivachenko A, Lin P, Stojanov P, Jing R, Park RW, Nazaire MD, Robinson J, Thorvaldsdottir H, Mesirov J, Park PJ, Chin L, Thorsson V, Reynolds SM, Bernard B, Kreisberg R, Lin J, Iype L, Bressler R, Erkkilä T, Gundapuneni M, Liu Y, Norberg A, Robinson T, Yang D, Zhang W, Shmulevich I, de Ronde JJ, Schultz N, Cerami E, Ciriello G, Goldberg AP, Gross B, Jacobsen A, Gao J, Kaczkowski B, Sinha R, Aksoy B, Antipin Y, Reva B, Shen R, Taylor BS, Chan TA, Ladanyi M, Sander C, Akbani R, Zhang N, Broom BM, Casasent T, Unruh A, Wakefield C, Hamilton SR, Cason R, Baggerly KA, Weinstein JN, Haussler D, Benz CC, Stuart JM, Benz SC, Sanborn J, Vaske CJ, Zhu J, Szeto C, Scott GK, Yau C, Ng S, Goldstein T, Ellrott K, Collisson E, Cozen AE, Zerbino D, Wilks C, Craft B, Spellman P, Penny R, Shelton T, Hatfield M, Morris S, Yena P, Shelton C, Sherman M, Paulauskis J, Gastier-Foster JM, Bowen J, Ramirez NC, Black A, Pyatt R, Wise L, White P, Bertagnolli M, Brown J, Chan TA, Chu GC, Czerwinski C, Denstman F, Dhir R, Dörner A, Fuchs CS, Guillem JG, Iacocca M, Juhl H, Kaufman A, Kohl B 3rd, Van Le X, Mariano MC, Medina EN, Meyers M, Nash GM, Paty PB, Petrelli N, Rabeno B, Richards WG, Solit D, Swanson P, Temple L, Tepper JE, Thorp R, Vakiani E, Weiser MR, Willis JE, Witkin G, Zeng Z, Zinner MJ, Zornig C, Jensen MA, Sfeir R, Kahn AB, Chu AL, Kothiyal P, Wang Z, Snyder EE, Pontius J, Pihl TD, Ayala B, Backus M, Walton J, Whitmore J, Baboud J, Berton DL, Nicholls MC, Srinivasan D, Raman R, Girshik S, Kigonya PA, Alonso S, Sanbhadti RN, Barletta SP, Greene JM, Pot DA, Shaw KR, Dillon LA, Buetow K, Davidsen T, Demchok JA, Eley G, Ferguson M, Fielding P, Schaefer C, Sheth M, Yang L, Guyer MS, Ozenberger BA, Palchik JD, Peterson J, Sofia HJ, Thomson E.

Abstract

To characterize somatic alterations in colorectal carcinoma, we conducted a genome-scale analysis of 276 samples, analysing exome sequence, DNA copy number, promoter methylation and messenger RNA and microRNA expression. A subset of these samples (97) underwent low-depth-of-coverage whole-genome sequencing. In total, 16% of colorectal carcinomas were found to be hypermutated: three-quarters of these had the expected high microsatellite instability, usually with hypermethylation and MLH1 silencing, and one-quarter had somatic mismatch-repair gene and polymerase ε (POLE) mutations. Excluding the hypermutated cancers, colon and rectum cancers were found to have considerably similar patterns of genomic alteration. Twenty-four genes were significantly mutated, and in addition to the expected APC, TP53, SMAD4, PIK3CA and KRAS mutations, we found frequent mutations in ARID1A, SOX9 and FAM123B. Recurrent copy-number alterations include potentially drug-targetable amplifications of ERBB2 and newly discovered amplification of IGF2. Recurrent chromosomal translocations include the fusion of NAV2 and WNT pathway member TCF7L1. Integrative analyses suggest new markers for aggressive colorectal carcinoma and an important role for MYC-directed transcriptional activation and repression.

Comment in

PMID:
22810696
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3401966
Free PMC Article

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