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AMB Express. 2012 Jul 13;2(1):35. doi: 10.1186/2191-0855-2-35.

Raman microspectroscopy for species identification and mapping within bacterial biofilms.

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  • 1The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, 275 Hutchison Rd,, Rochester, NY 14627, USA.


: A new method of mapping multiple species of oral bacteria in intact biofilms has been developed, using the optical technique of confocal Raman microscopy. A species classification algorithm, developed on dried biofilms, was used to analyze spectra of hydrated biofilms containing two microbial species central to dental health: Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans. The algorithm transferred successfully to the hydrated environment, correctly identifying the species of origin of single-species biofilms. We then used the algorithm successfully both to detect the presence of two species in mixed biofilms and to create spatial maps within these biofilms.

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