Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;20(2):159-68. doi: 10.1097/JGP.0b013e31820d9295.

Disability in the oldest-old: incidence and risk factors in the 90+ study.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurology, University of California Irvine, CA 92697, USA. danb@uci.edu



: To measure the incidence of disability in individuals aged 90 years and older and examine factors that may increase risk of disability.


: The 90+ Study, a longitudinal study of aging, initiated in January 2003 with follow-up through May 2009.


: A total of 216 nondisabled, prospectively followed participants who were aged 90 years or older at baseline.


: The incidence of disability was measured as needing help on one or more activities of daily living and calculated using person years. Risk factors were examined by using a Cox proportional hazards analysis.


: The overall incidence of disability was 16.4% per year (95% confidence interval: 13.3-20.0) and did not differ by gender. Disability incidence increased with age from 8.3% in the 90-94 age group to 25.7% in the 95 years and older age group. Several factors were associated with increased risk of disability, including history of congestive heart failure, depression, poor self-rated quality of life, and cognitive impairment.


: Disability incidence is high and increases rapidly with age in the oldest-old, with rates essentially tripling between ages 90-94 years and 95+ years. Some factors associated with increased risk of disability in younger elderly continue to be risk factors in the oldest-old. Because of the tremendous social and financial impact of disability and the rapid growth of the oldest-old, the development of strategies to delay disability in the elderly should be a priority for healthcare research.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (1)Free text

Figure 1
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk