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BMC Neurol. 2011 Dec 6;11:152. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-152.

Cortical injury in multiple sclerosis; the role of the immune system.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, 15 York Street, PO Box 208018 New Haven, CT 06520-8018, USA.

Abstract

The easily identifiable, ubiquitous demyelination and neuronal damage that occurs within the cerebral white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been the subject of extensive study. Accordingly, MS has historically been described as a disease of the white matter. Recently, the cerebral cortex (gray matter) of patients with MS has been recognized as an additional and major site of disease pathogenesis. This acknowledgement of cortical tissue damage is due, in part, to more powerful MRI that allows detection of such injury and to focused neuropathology-based investigations. Cortical tissue damage has been associated with inflammation that is less pronounced to that which is associated with damage in the white matter. There is, however, emerging evidence that suggests cortical damage can be closely associated with robust inflammation not only in the parenchyma, but also in the neighboring meninges. This manuscript will highlight the current knowledge of inflammation associated with cortical tissue injury. Historical literature along with contemporary work that focuses on both the absence and presence of inflammation in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebral meninges will be reviewed.

PMID:
22145746
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3266198
Free PMC Article
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