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Cells Tissues Organs. 2012;195(1-2):15-25. doi: 10.1159/000331409. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

Smooth muscle and other cell sources for human blood vessel engineering.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Conn., USA.


Despite substantial progress in the field of vascular tissue engineering over the past decades, transition to human models has been rather challenging. The limited replicative life spans of human adult vascular cells, and their slow rate of collagenous matrix production in vitro, have posed important hurdles in the development of mechanically robust and biologically functional engineered grafts. With the more recent advances in the field of stem cells, investigators now have access to a plethora of new cell source alternatives for vascular engineering. In this paper, we review various alternative cell sources made available more recently for blood vessel engineering and also present some recent data on the derivation of smooth muscle cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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