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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 25;107(21):9626-31. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1001292107. Epub 2010 May 10.

Induced polymerization of mammalian acetyl-CoA carboxylase by MIG12 provides a tertiary level of regulation of fatty acid synthesis.

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  • 1Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9046, USA.


Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the first committed enzyme in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, transcription, and an unusual mechanism of protein polymerization. Polymerization of ACC increases enzymatic activity and is induced in vitro by supraphysiological concentrations of citrate (> 5 mM). Here, we show that MIG12, a 22 kDa cytosolic protein of previously unknown function, binds to ACC and lowers the threshold for citrate activation into the physiological range (< 1 mM). In vitro, recombinant MIG12 induced polymerization of ACC (as determined by nondenaturing gels, FPLC, and electron microscopy) and increased ACC activity by > 50-fold in the presence of 1 mM citrate. In vivo, overexpression of MIG12 in liver induced ACC polymerization, increased FA synthesis, and produced triglyceride accumulation and fatty liver. Thus, in addition to its regulation by phosphorylation and transcription, ACC is regulated at a tertiary level by MIG12, which facilitates ACC polymerization and enhances enzymatic activity.

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