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Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Mar;89(3 Suppl 1):S9-14. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2007.12.010.

Congenital and acquired brain injury. 2. Medical rehabilitation in acute and subacute settings.

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  • 1Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY 10029-6504, USA.


This self-directed learning module reviews common clinical problems and issues pertaining to early management of persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is part of the study guide on brain injury medicine in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Acute TBI is frequently complicated by agitation, dystonia, and numerous orthopedic and neurologic comorbidities, often causing a decrement in function, which requires careful assessment and treatment. Individuals with acute brain injury typically receive rehabilitation in a setting determined by numerous factors, including medical stability and tolerance to rehabilitation interventions.


To describe (a) common traumatic brain injury-related comorbidities and treatment strategies, (b) potential causes of declining patient performance, and (c) appropriate settings for rehabilitation interventions.

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