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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep;193(3 Pt 2):921-7.

Toll-like receptor 4: a potential link between "danger signals," the innate immune system, and preeclampsia?

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  • 1Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial ligands and host products that are released during tissue damage, the so-called "danger signals." This study was conducted to determine whether changes in TLR-4 and TLR-2 expressions can be detected in the trophoblasts at the placental bed of women with and without preeclampsia.

STUDY DESIGN:

Placental bed biopsy specimens were obtained from women with: (1) normal term pregnancies with and without labor (each n = 20); (2) preeclampsia who delivered preterm (n = 15); and (3) preterm labor and intact membranes with and without chorioamnionitis (each n = 15). The expression pattern of TLR-4 and TLR-2 in the trophoblasts was analyzed by double immunohistochemistry.

RESULTS:

(1) The median percentage of TLR-4 positive interstitial trophoblasts was significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia than in patients with preterm labor without or with histologic chorioamnionitis (P = .0002 and P = .02, respectively). (2) The median percentage of TLR-2 positive interstitial trophoblasts was not different among the study groups (P>.05). (3) TLR-4 positive trophoblasts were also frequently immunoreactive to activated nuclear factor-kappaB, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and M30 (a specific apoptosis antigen for trophoblast). (4) Lipopolysaccharide treatment inhibited the migration of trophoblast cell lines in vitro.

CONCLUSION:

TLR-4 protein expression is increased in interstitial trophoblasts of patients with preeclampsia. We propose that "danger signals" at the feto-maternal interface, which are recognized by trophoblasts through TLR-4, may play a key role in the creation of a local abnormal cytokine milieu. This suggests a novel mechanism that links the activation of the innate immune system through TLR-4 and preeclampsia.

PMID:
16157088
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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