Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Feb;101(2):195-202.

5 a day fruit and vegetable intervention improves consumption in a low income population.

Author information

  • 1Michigan Department of Community Health, Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Control, 3423 N M.L. King Blvd, PO Box 30195, Lansing, MI 48909, USA.



This study evaluated the Michigan Farmers' Market Nutrition Program in one Michigan county to determine its effect on fruit and vegetable consumption behavior.


Subjects were selected from WIC and Community Action Agency populations: 564 low income women completed the pretest; 455 completed the posttest. Attrition rate was 19.3%.


Subjects were assigned to one of 4 interventions: education about the use, storage and nutritional value of fruits and vegetables, distribution of farmers' market coupons, both education and coupons, or no intervention.


Education-only and coupon and education groups were randomly assigned; clinic appointment timing determined assignment to no-intervention and coupon-only groups.


A self-administered questionnaire before and after intervention measured attitudes about fruit and vegetable consumption and intake of fruits and vegetables. WIC records documented redemption of coupons.


Data analysis included 2-way multivariate analysis of covariance, univariate analysis of covariance, logistic regression, and covariance structure modeling.


Both the education interventions and the coupon interventions had positive effects. Coupons had a direct effect on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption behavior but no effect on attitudes. Education had a direct effect on attitudes and seemed to exert an effect on consumption behavior through attitudes. The maximum impact of the intervention was achieved through a combination of education and coupons.


This study demonstrated that a low-income population may be more likely to increase its fruit and vegetable consumption behavior when incentives such as coupons improve affordability.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk