Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nanoscale Res Lett. 2013 May 2;8(1):208. doi: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-208.

Cytotoxicity and variant cellular internalization behavior of water-soluble sulfonated nanographene sheets in liver cancer cells.

Author information

  • 1Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M, D, Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 107, Rm, T4,3936, 6767 Bertner, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. scurley@mdanderson.org.


Highly exfoliated sulfonated graphene sheets (SGSs), an alternative to graphene oxide and graphene derivatives, were synthesized, characterized, and applied to liver cancer cells in vitro. Cytotoxicity profiles were obtained using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, WST-1[2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, and lactate dehydrogenase release colorimetric assays. These particles were found to be non-toxic across the concentration range of 0.1 to 10 μg/ml. Internalization of SGSs was also studied by means of optical and electron microscopy. Although not conclusive, high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed variant internalization behaviors where some of the SGS became folded and compartmentalized into tight bundles within cellular organelles. The ability for liver cancer cells to internalize, fold, and compartmentalize graphene structures is a phenomenon not previously documented for graphene cell biology and should be further investigated.

Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (7)Free text

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk