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A short-term in vivo screen using fetal testosterone production, a key event in the phthalate adverse outcome pathway, to predict disruption of sexual differentiation.

Furr JR, Lambright CS, Wilson VS, Foster PM, Gray LE Jr.

Toxicol Sci. 2014 Aug 1;140(2):403-24. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu081. Epub 2014 May 5.


Dose-dependent alterations in gene expression and testosterone production in fetal rat testis after exposure to di-n-hexyl phthalate.

Saillenfait AM, Sabaté JP, Robert A, Rouiller-Fabre V, Roudot AC, Moison D, Denis F.

J Appl Toxicol. 2013 Sep;33(9):1027-35. doi: 10.1002/jat.2896. Epub 2013 Jun 11.


Dipentyl phthalate dosing during sexual differentiation disrupts fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male Sprague-Dawley rat with greater relative potency than other phthalates.

Hannas BR, Furr J, Lambright CS, Wilson VS, Foster PM, Gray LE Jr.

Toxicol Sci. 2011 Mar;120(1):184-93. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq386. Epub 2010 Dec 20.


Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency.

Hannas BR, Lambright CS, Furr J, Evans N, Foster PM, Gray EL, Wilson VS.

Toxicol Sci. 2012 Feb;125(2):544-57. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfr315. Epub 2011 Nov 22.


A mixture of five phthalate esters inhibits fetal testicular testosterone production in the sprague-dawley rat in a cumulative, dose-additive manner.

Howdeshell KL, Wilson VS, Furr J, Lambright CR, Rider CV, Blystone CR, Hotchkiss AK, Gray LE Jr.

Toxicol Sci. 2008 Sep;105(1):153-65. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfn077. Epub 2008 Apr 14.


Simvastatin and dipentyl phthalate lower ex vivo testicular testosterone production and exhibit additive effects on testicular testosterone and gene expression via distinct mechanistic pathways in the fetal rat.

Beverly BE, Lambright CS, Furr JR, Sampson H, Wilson VS, McIntyre BS, Foster PM, Travlos G, Gray LE Jr.

Toxicol Sci. 2014 Oct;141(2):524-37. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu149. Epub 2014 Jul 23.


Perinatal exposure to the phthalates DEHP, BBP, and DINP, but not DEP, DMP, or DOTP, alters sexual differentiation of the male rat.

Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Furr J, Price M, Veeramachaneni DN, Parks L.

Toxicol Sci. 2000 Dec;58(2):350-65.


Di(n-butyl) phthalate impairs cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis in the fetal rat testis through a rapid and reversible mechanism.

Thompson CJ, Ross SM, Gaido KW.

Endocrinology. 2004 Mar;145(3):1227-37. Epub 2003 Nov 14.


The herbicide linuron reduces testosterone production from the fetal rat testis during both in utero and in vitro exposures.

Wilson VS, Lambright CR, Furr JR, Howdeshell KL, Earl Gray L Jr.

Toxicol Lett. 2009 Apr 25;186(2):73-7. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.12.017. Epub 2009 Jan 9.


The plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate induces malformations by decreasing fetal testosterone synthesis during sexual differentiation in the male rat.

Parks LG, Ostby JS, Lambright CR, Abbott BD, Klinefelter GR, Barlow NJ, Gray LE Jr.

Toxicol Sci. 2000 Dec;58(2):339-49.


Fetal testosterone insufficiency and abnormal proliferation of Leydig cells and gonocytes in rats exposed to di(n-butyl) phthalate.

Mylchreest E, Sar M, Wallace DG, Foster PM.

Reprod Toxicol. 2002 Jan-Feb;16(1):19-28.


Effects of monobutyl and di(n-butyl) phthalate in vitro on steroidogenesis and Leydig cell aggregation in fetal testis explants from the rat: comparison with effects in vivo in the fetal rat and neonatal marmoset and in vitro in the human.

Hallmark N, Walker M, McKinnell C, Mahood IK, Scott H, Bayne R, Coutts S, Anderson RA, Greig I, Morris K, Sharpe RM.

Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Mar;115(3):390-6. Epub 2006 Dec 19.


Kinetics of selected di-n-butyl phthalate metabolites and fetal testosterone following repeated and single administration in pregnant rats.

Clewell RA, Kremer JJ, Williams CC, Campbell JL, Sochaski MA, Andersen ME, Borghoff SJ.

Toxicology. 2009 Jan 8;255(1-2):80-90. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2008.10.010. Epub 2008 Nov 1.


Phthalate ester-induced gubernacular lesions are associated with reduced insl3 gene expression in the fetal rat testis.

Wilson VS, Lambright C, Furr J, Ostby J, Wood C, Held G, Gray LE Jr.

Toxicol Lett. 2004 Feb 2;146(3):207-15.


Dose-dependent alterations in gene expression and testosterone synthesis in the fetal testes of male rats exposed to di (n-butyl) phthalate.

Lehmann KP, Phillips S, Sar M, Foster PM, Gaido KW.

Toxicol Sci. 2004 Sep;81(1):60-8. Epub 2004 May 12.


Human fetal testis xenografts are resistant to phthalate-induced endocrine disruption.

Heger NE, Hall SJ, Sandrof MA, McDonnell EV, Hensley JB, McDowell EN, Martin KA, Gaido KW, Johnson KJ, Boekelheide K.

Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Aug;120(8):1137-43. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104711. Epub 2012 Apr 17.


Adverse effects of diisooctyl phthalate on the male rat reproductive development following prenatal exposure.

Saillenfait AM, Sabaté JP, Robert A, Cossec B, Roudot AC, Denis F, Burgart M.

Reprod Toxicol. 2013 Dec;42:192-202. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.09.004. Epub 2013 Sep 19.


In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exerts both short-term and long-lasting suppressive effects on testosterone production in the rat.

Culty M, Thuillier R, Li W, Wang Y, Martinez-Arguelles DB, Benjamin CG, Triantafilou KM, Zirkin BR, Papadopoulos V.

Biol Reprod. 2008 Jun;78(6):1018-28. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.107.065649. Epub 2008 Mar 5.


A mixture of the "antiandrogens" linuron and butyl benzyl phthalate alters sexual differentiation of the male rat in a cumulative fashion.

Hotchkiss AK, Parks-Saldutti LG, Ostby JS, Lambright C, Furr J, Vandenbergh JG, Gray LE Jr.

Biol Reprod. 2004 Dec;71(6):1852-61. Epub 2004 Jul 30.

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