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The essential, nonredundant roles of RIG-I and MDA5 in detecting and controlling West Nile virus infection.

Errett JS, Suthar MS, McMillan A, Diamond MS, Gale M Jr.

J Virol. 2013 Nov;87(21):11416-25. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01488-13. Epub 2013 Aug 21.


Pattern recognition receptor MDA5 modulates CD8+ T cell-dependent clearance of West Nile virus from the central nervous system.

Lazear HM, Pinto AK, Ramos HJ, Vick SC, Shrestha B, Suthar MS, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS.

J Virol. 2013 Nov;87(21):11401-15. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01403-13. Epub 2013 Aug 21.


Establishment and maintenance of the innate antiviral response to West Nile Virus involves both RIG-I and MDA5 signaling through IPS-1.

Fredericksen BL, Keller BC, Fornek J, Katze MG, Gale M Jr.

J Virol. 2008 Jan;82(2):609-16. Epub 2007 Oct 31.


IPS-1 is essential for the control of West Nile virus infection and immunity.

Suthar MS, Ma DY, Thomas S, Lund JM, Zhang N, Daffis S, Rudensky AY, Bevan MJ, Clark EA, Kaja MK, Diamond MS, Gale M Jr.

PLoS Pathog. 2010 Feb 5;6(2):e1000757. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000757.


A systems biology approach reveals that tissue tropism to West Nile virus is regulated by antiviral genes and innate immune cellular processes.

Suthar MS, Brassil MM, Blahnik G, McMillan A, Ramos HJ, Proll SC, Belisle SE, Katze MG, Gale M Jr.

PLoS Pathog. 2013 Feb;9(2):e1003168. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003168. Epub 2013 Feb 7.


Toll-like receptor 3 has a protective role against West Nile virus infection.

Daffis S, Samuel MA, Suthar MS, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS.

J Virol. 2008 Nov;82(21):10349-58. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00935-08. Epub 2008 Aug 20.


The innate immune adaptor molecule MyD88 restricts West Nile virus replication and spread in neurons of the central nervous system.

Szretter KJ, Daffis S, Patel J, Suthar MS, Klein RS, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS.

J Virol. 2010 Dec;84(23):12125-38. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01026-10. Epub 2010 Sep 29.


Distinct RIG-I and MDA5 signaling by RNA viruses in innate immunity.

Loo YM, Fornek J, Crochet N, Bajwa G, Perwitasari O, Martinez-Sobrido L, Akira S, Gill MA, GarcĂ­a-Sastre A, Katze MG, Gale M Jr.

J Virol. 2008 Jan;82(1):335-45. Epub 2007 Oct 17.


Cell-specific IRF-3 responses protect against West Nile virus infection by interferon-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

Daffis S, Samuel MA, Keller BC, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS.

PLoS Pathog. 2007 Jul 27;3(7):e106.


Interferon regulatory factor 5-dependent immune responses in the draining lymph node protect against West Nile virus infection.

Thackray LB, Shrestha B, Richner JM, Miner JJ, Pinto AK, Lazear HM, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS.

J Virol. 2014 Oct;88(19):11007-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01545-14. Epub 2014 Jul 16.


Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns regulate blood-brain barrier integrity via competing innate cytokine signals.

Daniels BP, Holman DW, Cruz-Orengo L, Jujjavarapu H, Durrant DM, Klein RS.

MBio. 2014 Aug 26;5(5):e01476-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01476-14.


Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 senses hepatitis B virus and activates innate immune signaling to suppress virus replication.

Lu HL, Liao F.

J Immunol. 2013 Sep 15;191(6):3264-76. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300512. Epub 2013 Aug 7.


Interferon regulatory factor IRF-7 induces the antiviral alpha interferon response and protects against lethal West Nile virus infection.

Daffis S, Samuel MA, Suthar MS, Keller BC, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS.

J Virol. 2008 Sep;82(17):8465-75. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00918-08. Epub 2008 Jun 18.


Identification of multiple RIG-I-specific pathogen associated molecular patterns within the West Nile virus genome and antigenome.

Shipley JG, Vandergaast R, Deng L, Mariuzza RA, Fredericksen BL.

Virology. 2012 Oct 10;432(1):232-8. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2012.06.009. Epub 2012 Jul 7.


RIG-I-like receptors evolved adaptively in mammals, with parallel evolution at LGP2 and RIG-I.

Cagliani R, Forni D, Tresoldi C, Pozzoli U, Filippi G, Rainone V, De Gioia L, Clerici M, Sironi M.

J Mol Biol. 2014 Mar 20;426(6):1351-65. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.10.040. Epub 2013 Nov 7.


Sensing of viral nucleic acids by RIG-I: from translocation to translation.

Schmidt A, Rothenfusser S, Hopfner KP.

Eur J Cell Biol. 2012 Jan;91(1):78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.01.015. Epub 2011 Apr 14. Review.


Caspase-12 controls West Nile virus infection via the viral RNA receptor RIG-I.

Wang P, Arjona A, Zhang Y, Sultana H, Dai J, Yang L, LeBlanc PM, Doiron K, Saleh M, Fikrig E.

Nat Immunol. 2010 Oct;11(10):912-9. doi: 10.1038/ni.1933. Epub 2010 Sep 5.


RIG-I, MDA5 and TLR3 synergistically play an important role in restriction of dengue virus infection.

Nasirudeen AM, Wong HH, Thien P, Xu S, Lam KP, Liu DX.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Jan 4;5(1):e926. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000926.


Induction of IFN-beta and the innate antiviral response in myeloid cells occurs through an IPS-1-dependent signal that does not require IRF-3 and IRF-7.

Daffis S, Suthar MS, Szretter KJ, Gale M Jr, Diamond MS.

PLoS Pathog. 2009 Oct;5(10):e1000607. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000607. Epub 2009 Oct 2.

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