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Metformin selectively targets cancer stem cells, and acts together with chemotherapy to block tumor growth and prolong remission.

Hirsch HA, Iliopoulos D, Tsichlis PN, Struhl K.

Cancer Res. 2009 Oct 1;69(19):7507-11. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2994. Epub 2009 Sep 14. Erratum in: Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15;69(22):8832.


Metformin inhibits the inflammatory response associated with cellular transformation and cancer stem cell growth.

Hirsch HA, Iliopoulos D, Struhl K.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 15;110(3):972-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1221055110. Epub 2012 Dec 31.


Metformin decreases the dose of chemotherapy for prolonging tumor remission in mouse xenografts involving multiple cancer cell types.

Iliopoulos D, Hirsch HA, Struhl K.

Cancer Res. 2011 May 1;71(9):3196-201. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3471. Epub 2011 Mar 17.


Cancer stem/progenitor cell active compound 8-quinolinol in combination with paclitaxel achieves an improved cure of breast cancer in the mouse model.

Zhou J, Zhang H, Gu P, Margolick JB, Yin D, Zhang Y.

Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 May;115(2):269-77. doi: 10.1007/s10549-008-0072-8. Epub 2008 May 28.


Effects of stealth liposomal daunorubicin plus tamoxifen on the breast cancer and cancer stem cells.

Guo J, Zhou J, Ying X, Men Y, Li RJ, Zhang Y, Du J, Tian W, Yao HJ, Wang XX, Ju RJ, Lu WL.

J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010;13(2):136-51.


A potential target associated with both cancer and cancer stem cells: a combination therapy for eradication of breast cancer using vinorelbine stealthy liposomes plus parthenolide stealthy liposomes.

Liu Y, Lu WL, Guo J, Du J, Li T, Wu JW, Wang GL, Wang JC, Zhang X, Zhang Q.

J Control Release. 2008 Jul 2;129(1):18-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2008.03.022. Epub 2008 Apr 4.


NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors preferentially inhibit breast cancer stem-like cells.

Zhou J, Zhang H, Gu P, Bai J, Margolick JB, Zhang Y.

Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Oct;111(3):419-27. Epub 2007 Oct 27.


Co-delivery of thioridazine and doxorubicin using polymeric micelles for targeting both cancer cells and cancer stem cells.

Ke XY, Lin Ng VW, Gao SJ, Tong YW, Hedrick JL, Yang YY.

Biomaterials. 2014 Jan;35(3):1096-108. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.10.049. Epub 2013 Nov 1.


Combination therapy with epigenetic-targeted and chemotherapeutic drugs delivered by nanoparticles to enhance the chemotherapy response and overcome resistance by breast cancer stem cells.

Li SY, Sun R, Wang HX, Shen S, Liu Y, Du XJ, Zhu YH, Jun W.

J Control Release. 2015 May 10;205:7-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.11.011. Epub 2014 Nov 15.


Inducible formation of breast cancer stem cells and their dynamic equilibrium with non-stem cancer cells via IL6 secretion.

Iliopoulos D, Hirsch HA, Wang G, Struhl K.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 25;108(4):1397-402. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1018898108. Epub 2011 Jan 10.


Antitumor effect of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in combination with trastuzumab on human breast cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo.

Zhu Y, Zhang X, Liu Y, Zhang S, Liu J, Ma Y, Zhang J.

Tumour Biol. 2012 Oct;33(5):1349-62. doi: 10.1007/s13277-012-0383-6. Epub 2012 Apr 11.


Combination treatment with fulvestrant and various cytotoxic agents (doxorubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine, and 5-fluorouracil) has a synergistic effect in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

Ikeda H, Taira N, Nogami T, Shien K, Okada M, Shien T, Doihara H, Miyoshi S.

Cancer Sci. 2011 Nov;102(11):2038-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02050.x. Epub 2011 Sep 1.


Reprogramming ovarian and breast cancer cells into non-cancerous cells by low-dose metformin or SN-38 through FOXO3 activation.

Hu T, Chung YM, Guan M, Ma M, Ma J, Berek JS, Hu MC.

Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 24;4:5810. doi: 10.1038/srep05810.


Metformin represses self-renewal of the human breast carcinoma stem cells via inhibition of estrogen receptor-mediated OCT4 expression.

Jung JW, Park SB, Lee SJ, Seo MS, Trosko JE, Kang KS.

PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e28068. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028068. Epub 2011 Nov 23.


IMD-0354 targets breast cancer stem cells: a novel approach for an adjuvant to chemotherapy to prevent multidrug resistance in a murine model.

Gomez-Cabrero A, Wrasidlo W, Reisfeld RA.

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 27;8(8):e73607. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073607. eCollection 2013.


A combination of DR5 agonistic monoclonal antibody with gemcitabine targets pancreatic cancer stem cells and results in long-term disease control in human pancreatic cancer model.

Rajeshkumar NV, Rasheed ZA, García-García E, López-Ríos F, Fujiwara K, Matsui WH, Hidalgo M.

Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 Sep;9(9):2582-92. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0370. Epub 2010 Jul 26.


Metformin sensitizes chemotherapy by targeting cancer stem cells and the mTOR pathway in esophageal cancer.

Honjo S, Ajani JA, Scott AW, Chen Q, Skinner HD, Stroehlein J, Johnson RL, Song S.

Int J Oncol. 2014 Aug;45(2):567-74. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2014.2450. Epub 2014 May 21.


Changes in [18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose incorporation induced by doxorubicin and anti-HER antibodies by breast cancer cells modulated by co-treatment with metformin and its effects on intracellular signalling.

Cooper AC, Fleming IN, Phyu SM, Smith TA.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015 Sep;141(9):1523-32. doi: 10.1007/s00432-015-1909-2. Epub 2015 Jan 13.


The eradication of breast cancer and cancer stem cells using octreotide modified paclitaxel active targeting micelles and salinomycin passive targeting micelles.

Zhang Y, Zhang H, Wang X, Wang J, Zhang X, Zhang Q.

Biomaterials. 2012 Jan;33(2):679-91. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.09.072. Epub 2011 Oct 22.

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