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Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

Engler MB, Engler MM, Chen CY, Malloy MJ, Browne A, Chiu EY, Kwak HK, Milbury P, Paul SM, Blumberg J, Mietus-Snyder ML.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Jun;23(3):197-204.


Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

Vlachopoulos C, Aznaouridis K, Alexopoulos N, Economou E, Andreadou I, Stefanadis C.

Am J Hypertens. 2005 Jun;18(6):785-91.


Acute effect of oral flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake on coronary circulation, as compared with non-flavonoid white chocolate, by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography in healthy adults.

Shiina Y, Funabashi N, Lee K, Murayama T, Nakamura K, Wakatsuki Y, Daimon M, Komuro I.

Int J Cardiol. 2009 Jan 24;131(3):424-9. Epub 2007 Nov 28.


Effects of cocoa powder and dark chocolate on LDL oxidative susceptibility and prostaglandin concentrations in humans.

Wan Y, Vinson JA, Etherton TD, Proch J, Lazarus SA, Kris-Etherton PM.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74(5):596-602.


Epicatechin in human plasma: in vivo determination and effect of chocolate consumption on plasma oxidation status.

Rein D, Lotito S, Holt RR, Keen CL, Schmitz HH, Fraga CG.

J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8S Suppl):2109S-14S.


Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion and reduces platelet reactivity.

Flammer AJ, Hermann F, Sudano I, Spieker L, Hermann M, Cooper KA, Serafini M, Lüscher TF, Ruschitzka F, Noll G, Corti R.

Circulation. 2007 Nov 20;116(21):2376-82. Epub 2007 Nov 5.


Influence of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins on free radical-induced human erythrocyte hemolysis.

Zhu QY, Schramm DD, Gross HB, Holt RR, Kim SH, Yamaguchi T, Kwik-Uribe CL, Keen CL.

Clin Dev Immunol. 2005 Mar;12(1):27-34.


Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function.

Murphy KJ, Chronopoulos AK, Singh I, Francis MA, Moriarty H, Pike MJ, Turner AH, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1466-73.


Procyanidin dimer B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-8)-epicatechin] in human plasma after the consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa.

Holt RR, Lazarus SA, Sullards MC, Zhu QY, Schramm DD, Hammerstone JF, Fraga CG, Schmitz HH, Keen CL.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Oct;76(4):798-804.


A dose-response effect from chocolate consumption on plasma epicatechin and oxidative damage.

Wang JF, Schramm DD, Holt RR, Ensunsa JL, Fraga CG, Schmitz HH, Keen CL.

J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8S Suppl):2115S-9S.


Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

Wang-Polagruto JF, Villablanca AC, Polagruto JA, Lee L, Holt RR, Schrader HR, Ensunsa JL, Steinberg FM, Schmitz HH, Keen CL.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;47 Suppl 2:S177-86; discussion S206-9.


Postprandial effects of dark chocolate on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: results of a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

De Gottardi A, Berzigotti A, Seijo S, D'Amico M, Thormann W, Abraldes JG, García-Pagán JC, Bosch J.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep;96(3):584-90. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.040469. Epub 2012 Jul 18.


Acute dark chocolate and cocoa ingestion and endothelial function: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

Faridi Z, Njike VY, Dutta S, Ali A, Katz DL.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):58-63.


Effect of dark chocolate on plasma epicatechin levels, DNA resistance to oxidative stress and total antioxidant activity in healthy subjects.

Spadafranca A, Martinez Conesa C, Sirini S, Testolin G.

Br J Nutr. 2010 Apr;103(7):1008-14. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509992698. Epub 2009 Nov 5.


NOX2-mediated arterial dysfunction in smokers: acute effect of dark chocolate.

Loffredo L, Carnevale R, Perri L, Catasca E, Augelletti T, Cangemi R, Albanese F, Piccheri C, Nocella C, Pignatelli P, Violi F.

Heart. 2011 Nov;97(21):1776-81. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2011-300304. Epub 2011 Jul 31.


Chocolate procyanidins decrease the leukotriene-prostacyclin ratio in humans and human aortic endothelial cells.

Schramm DD, Wang JF, Holt RR, Ensunsa JL, Gonsalves JL, Lazarus SA, Schmitz HH, German JB, Keen CL.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jan;73(1):36-40.


Effects of low habitual cocoa intake on blood pressure and bioactive nitric oxide: a randomized controlled trial.

Taubert D, Roesen R, Lehmann C, Jung N, Schömig E.

JAMA. 2007 Jul 4;298(1):49-60.


Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

Miller KB, Hurst WJ, Flannigan N, Ou B, Lee CY, Smith N, Stuart DA.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 14;57(19):9169-80. doi: 10.1021/jf901821x.

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