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J Pediatr. 2009 Jan;154(1):20-23.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.07.052. Epub 2008 Sep 19.

Smoking and metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.



To relate self-reported smoking frequency to metabolic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.


In the multicenter Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentationssystem database from Germany and Austria, anonymized records on 27 561 patients < 20 years of age with documented smoking status were available for analysis.


Self-reported smoking was negligible in patients younger than 11 years (0.1%), increasing to 5% in 11- to 15-year-old patients, and 28.4% in the 15- to 20-year-old age group. Multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, diabetes duration, sex, insulin therapy, and center differences, revealed that smokers had higher HbA1c-levels compared with non-smokers (9.1% vs 8.0%, P < .0001). Diastolic blood pressure was higher (68.2 vs 67.6 mm Hg, P < .0001), and the lipid profile was unfavorable in patients who smoke: Triglycerides and total cholesterol were higher and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was lower (all P < .0001).


Smokers display significantly worse metabolic control and a higher cardiovascular risk profile. Although not attested in trials, we state that education about smoking, smoking prevention, and psychological help for smoking cessation should be an integral part of comprehensive pediatric care for adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes.

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