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Poor immune reconstitution in HIV-infected patients associates with high percentage of regulatory CD4+ T cells.

Horta A, Nobrega C, Amorim-Machado P, Coutinho-Teixeira V, Barreira-Silva P, Boavida S, Costa P, Sarmento-Castro R, Castro AG, Correia-Neves M.

PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57336. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057336. Epub 2013 Feb 20.


Severe immune dysregulation affects CD4⁺CD25(hi)FoxP3⁺ regulatory T cells in HIV-infected patients with low-level CD4 T-cell repopulation despite suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Méndez-Lagares G, Pozo-Balado MM, Genebat M, García Pergañeda A, Leal M, Pacheco YM.

J Infect Dis. 2012 May 15;205(10):1501-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis230. Epub 2012 Mar 28. Erratum in: J Infect Dis. 2012 Dec 15;206(12):1951. del Mar del Pozo Balado, María [corrected to Pozo-Balado, María M]; Genebat González, Miguel [corrected to Genebat, Miguel]; García Pergañeda Sánchez, Antonio [corrected to García-Pergañeda, Antonio]; Leal Noval, Manuel [corrected to Leal, Manuel]; Pacheco López, Yolanda María [corrected to Pacheco, Yolanda María].


HIV-1-infected children on HAART: immunologic features of three different levels of viral suppression.

Zaccarelli-Filho CA, Ono E, Machado DM, Brunialti M, Succi RC, Salomão R, Kallás EG, de Moraes-Pinto MI.

Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2007 Jan 15;72(1):14-21.


Correlation between the degree of immune activation, production of IL-2 and FOXP3 expression in CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells in HIV-1 infected persons under HAART.

Terzieva V, Popova D, Kicheva M, Todorova Y, Markova R, Martinova F, Elenkov I, Yankova M.

Int Immunopharmacol. 2009 Jul;9(7-8):831-6. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2009.03.009. Epub 2009 Mar 18.


Thymic function in HIV-infection.

Kolte L.

Dan Med J. 2013 Apr;60(4):B4622. Review.


Increased levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients after 5 years of highly active anti-retroviral therapy may be due to increased thymic production of naive Tregs.

Kolte L, Gaardbo JC, Skogstrand K, Ryder LP, Ersbøll AK, Nielsen SD.

Clin Exp Immunol. 2009 Jan;155(1):44-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03803.x. Epub 2008 Nov 6.


Differential upregulation of CD38 on different T-cell subsets may influence the ability to reconstitute CD4+ T cells under successful highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Benito JM, López M, Lozano S, Ballesteros C, Martinez P, González-Lahoz J, Soriano V.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Apr 1;38(4):373-81.


Hydroxychloroquine drastically reduces immune activation in HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-treated immunologic nonresponders.

Piconi S, Parisotto S, Rizzardini G, Passerini S, Terzi R, Argenteri B, Meraviglia P, Capetti A, Biasin M, Trabattoni D, Clerici M.

Blood. 2011 Sep 22;118(12):3263-72. doi: 10.1182/blood-2011-01-329060. Epub 2011 May 16.


Incomplete normalization of regulatory t-cell frequency in the gut mucosa of Colombian HIV-infected patients receiving long-term antiretroviral treatment.

Rueda CM, Velilla PA, Chougnet CA, Rugeles MT.

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 15;8(8):e71062. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071062. eCollection 2013.


Lower CD4+ T lymphocyte nadirs may indicate limited immune reconstitution in HIV-1 infected individuals on potent antiretroviral therapy: analysis of immunophenotypic marker results of AACTG 5067.

D'Amico R, Yang Y, Mildvan D, Evans SR, Schnizlein-Bick CT, Hafner R, Webb N, Basar M, Zackin R, Jacobson MA.

J Clin Immunol. 2005 Mar;25(2):106-15.


Association between discordant immunological response to highly active anti-retroviral therapy, regulatory T cell percentage, immune cell activation and very low-level viraemia in HIV-infected patients.

Saison J, Ferry T, Demaret J, Maucort Boulch D, Venet F, Perpoint T, Ader F, Icard V, Chidiac C, Monneret G; Lyon HIV Cohort Study.

Clin Exp Immunol. 2014 Jun;176(3):401-9. doi: 10.1111/cei.12278.


Impact of suppression of viral replication by highly active antiretroviral therapy on immune function and phenotype in chronic HIV-1 infection.

Lange CG, Lederman MM, Madero JS, Medvik K, Asaad R, Pacheko C, Carranza C, Valdez H.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 May 1;30(1):33-40.


Role of in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide on T-cell activation in HIV-infected antiretroviral-treated patients.

Tincati C, Bellistrì GM, Ancona G, Merlini E, d'Arminio Monforte A, Marchetti G.

Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:935425. doi: 10.1155/2012/935425. Epub 2012 Feb 15.


Nadir CD4 T cell count as predictor and high CD4 T cell intrinsic apoptosis as final mechanism of poor CD4 T cell recovery in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients: clinical implications.

Negredo E, Massanella M, Puig J, Pérez-Alvarez N, Gallego-Escuredo JM, Villarroya J, Villarroya F, Moltó J, Santos JR, Clotet B, Blanco J.

Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 1;50(9):1300-8. doi: 10.1086/651689.


Regulatory T cells in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients are elevated and independent of immunological and virological status, as well as initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy.

Gaardbo JC, Nielsen SD, Vedel SJ, Ersbøll AK, Harritshøj L, Ryder LP, Nielsen JO, Kolte L.

Clin Exp Immunol. 2008 Oct;154(1):80-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03725.x.


Regulatory T cells in HIV-infected immunological nonresponders are increased in blood but depleted in lymphoid tissue and predict immunological reconstitution.

Gaardbo JC, Hartling HJ, Ronit A, Springborg K, Gjerdrum LM, Ralfkiær E, Thorsteinsson K, Ullum H, Andersen ÅB, Nielsen SD.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Aug 1;66(4):349-57. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000173.


Naive T-cell depletion related to infection by X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in poor immunological responders to highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Delobel P, Nugeyre MT, Cazabat M, Sandres-Sauné K, Pasquier C, Cuzin L, Marchou B, Massip P, Cheynier R, Barré-Sinoussi F, Izopet J, Israël N.

J Virol. 2006 Oct;80(20):10229-36.

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