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Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Sohn JW, Harris LE, Berglund ED, Liu T, Vong L, Lowell BB, Balthasar N, Williams KW, Elmquist JK.

Cell. 2013 Jan 31;152(3):612-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.12.022.


Weight-independent effects of roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose homeostasis via melanocortin-4 receptors in mice and humans.

Zechner JF, Mirshahi UL, Satapati S, Berglund ED, Rossi J, Scott MM, Still CD, Gerhard GS, Burgess SC, Mirshahi T, Aguirre V.

Gastroenterology. 2013 Mar;144(3):580-590.e7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.11.022. Epub 2012 Nov 15.


Differential control of metabolic and cardiovascular functions by melanocortin-4 receptors in proopiomelanocortin neurons.

do Carmo JM, da Silva AA, Rushing JS, Pace B, Hall JE.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013 Aug 15;305(4):R359-68. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00518.2012. Epub 2013 Jul 10.


Melanocortin-4 receptors expressed by cholinergic neurons regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis.

Rossi J, Balthasar N, Olson D, Scott M, Berglund E, Lee CE, Choi MJ, Lauzon D, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK.

Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):195-204. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.01.010.


Melanocortin signalling and the regulation of blood pressure in human obesity.

Greenfield JR.

J Neuroendocrinol. 2011 Feb;23(2):186-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2010.02088.x. Review.


Melanocortin 4 receptors in autonomic neurons regulate thermogenesis and glycemia.

Berglund ED, Liu T, Kong X, Sohn JW, Vong L, Deng Z, Lee CE, Lee S, Williams KW, Olson DP, Scherer PE, Lowell BB, Elmquist JK.

Nat Neurosci. 2014 Jul;17(7):911-3. doi: 10.1038/nn.3737. Epub 2014 Jun 8.


Analysis of the therapeutic functions of novel melanocortin receptor agonists in MC3R- and MC4R-deficient C57BL/6J mice.

Kumar KG, Sutton GM, Dong JZ, Roubert P, Plas P, Halem HA, Culler MD, Yang H, Dixit VD, Butler AA.

Peptides. 2009 Oct;30(10):1892-900. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2009.07.012. Epub 2009 Jul 29.


Regulation of glucose tolerance and sympathetic activity by MC4R signaling in the lateral hypothalamus.

Morgan DA, McDaniel LN, Yin T, Khan M, Jiang J, Acevedo MR, Walsh SA, Ponto LL, Norris AW, Lutter M, Rahmouni K, Cui H.

Diabetes. 2015 Jun;64(6):1976-87. doi: 10.2337/db14-1257. Epub 2015 Jan 20.


Pharmacological chaperones restore function to MC4R mutants responsible for severe early-onset obesity.

René P, Le Gouill C, Pogozheva ID, Lee G, Mosberg HI, Farooqi IS, Valenzano KJ, Bouvier M.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Dec;335(3):520-32. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.172098. Epub 2010 Sep 8.


Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on Sim1 neurons in body weight regulation.

Xu Y, Wu Z, Sun H, Zhu Y, Kim ER, Lowell BB, Arenkiel BR, Xu Y, Tong Q.

Cell Metab. 2013 Dec 3;18(6):860-70. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.11.003.


Divergence of melanocortin pathways in the control of food intake and energy expenditure.

Balthasar N, Dalgaard LT, Lee CE, Yu J, Funahashi H, Williams T, Ferreira M, Tang V, McGovern RA, Kenny CD, Christiansen LM, Edelstein E, Choi B, Boss O, Aschkenasi C, Zhang CY, Mountjoy K, Kishi T, Elmquist JK, Lowell BB.

Cell. 2005 Nov 4;123(3):493-505.


Melanocortin-4 receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity.

Emmerson PJ, Fisher MJ, Yan LZ, Mayer JP.

Curr Top Med Chem. 2007;7(11):1121-30. Review.


Novel pharmacological MC4R agonists can efficiently activate mutated MC4R from obese patient with impaired endogenous agonist response.

Roubert P, Dubern B, Plas P, Lubrano-Berthelier C, Alihi R, Auger F, Deoliveira DB, Dong JZ, Basdevant A, Thurieau C, Clément K.

J Endocrinol. 2010 Nov;207(2):177-83. doi: 10.1677/JOE-09-0336. Epub 2010 Aug 9.


MC4R-expressing glutamatergic neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus regulate feeding and are synaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus.

Shah BP, Vong L, Olson DP, Koda S, Krashes MJ, Ye C, Yang Z, Fuller PM, Elmquist JK, Lowell BB.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 9;111(36):13193-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1407843111. Epub 2014 Aug 25.


The expression of MC4Rs in D1R neurons regulates food intake and locomotor sensitization to cocaine.

Cui H, Lutter M.

Genes Brain Behav. 2013 Aug;12(6):658-65. doi: 10.1111/gbb.12057. Epub 2013 Jul 17.


Obesity-induced hypertension: role of sympathetic nervous system, leptin, and melanocortins.

Hall JE, da Silva AA, do Carmo JM, Dubinion J, Hamza S, Munusamy S, Smith G, Stec DE.

J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 4;285(23):17271-6. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R110.113175. Epub 2010 Mar 26. Review.


Activation of MAPK by inverse agonists in six naturally occurring constitutively active mutant human melanocortin-4 receptors.

Mo XL, Tao YX.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Dec;1832(12):1939-48. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.06.006. Epub 2013 Jun 18.


Melanocortin 3/4 receptors in paraventricular nucleus modulate sympathetic outflow and blood pressure.

Li P, Cui BP, Zhang LL, Sun HJ, Liu TY, Zhu GQ.

Exp Physiol. 2013 Feb;98(2):435-43. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2012.067256. Epub 2012 Aug 7.


Activation of the melanocortin-4 receptor causes enhanced excitation in presympathetic paraventricular neurons in obese Zucker rats.

Ye ZY, Li DP.

Regul Pept. 2011 Jan 17;166(1-3):112-20. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2010.10.001. Epub 2010 Oct 16.

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