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The tarantula toxins ProTx-II and huwentoxin-IV differentially interact with human Nav1.7 voltage sensors to inhibit channel activation and inactivation.

Xiao Y, Blumenthal K, Jackson JO 2nd, Liang S, Cummins TR.

Mol Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;78(6):1124-34. doi: 10.1124/mol.110.066332. Epub 2010 Sep 20.


Gating-pore currents demonstrate selective and specific modulation of individual sodium channel voltage-sensors by biological toxins.

Xiao Y, Blumenthal K, Cummins TR.

Mol Pharmacol. 2014 Aug;86(2):159-67. doi: 10.1124/mol.114.092338. Epub 2014 Jun 4.


Common molecular determinants of tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibition of Na+ channel voltage sensors in domains II and IV.

Xiao Y, Jackson JO 2nd, Liang S, Cummins TR.

J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 5;286(31):27301-10. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.246876. Epub 2011 Jun 9.


Tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibits neuronal sodium channels by binding to receptor site 4 and trapping the domain ii voltage sensor in the closed configuration.

Xiao Y, Bingham JP, Zhu W, Moczydlowski E, Liang S, Cummins TR.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 3;283(40):27300-13. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M708447200. Epub 2008 Jul 14.


Two tarantula peptides inhibit activation of multiple sodium channels.

Middleton RE, Warren VA, Kraus RL, Hwang JC, Liu CJ, Dai G, Brochu RM, Kohler MG, Gao YD, Garsky VM, Bogusky MJ, Mehl JT, Cohen CJ, Smith MM.

Biochemistry. 2002 Dec 17;41(50):14734-47.


Inhibition of sodium channel gating by trapping the domain II voltage sensor with protoxin II.

Sokolov S, Kraus RL, Scheuer T, Catterall WA.

Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;73(3):1020-8. Epub 2007 Dec 21.


ProTx-II, a selective inhibitor of NaV1.7 sodium channels, blocks action potential propagation in nociceptors.

Schmalhofer WA, Calhoun J, Burrows R, Bailey T, Kohler MG, Weinglass AB, Kaczorowski GJ, Garcia ML, Koltzenburg M, Priest BT.

Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Nov;74(5):1476-84. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.047670. Epub 2008 Aug 26.


ProTx-I and ProTx-II: gating modifiers of voltage-gated sodium channels.

Priest BT, Blumenthal KM, Smith JJ, Warren VA, Smith MM.

Toxicon. 2007 Feb;49(2):194-201. Epub 2006 Sep 27. Review.


Synthesis and biological characterization of synthetic analogs of Huwentoxin-IV (Mu-theraphotoxin-Hh2a), a neuronal tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel inhibitor.

Deng M, Luo X, Jiang L, Chen H, Wang J, He H, Liang S.

Toxicon. 2013 Sep;71:57-65. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.05.015. Epub 2013 May 29.


Native pyroglutamation of huwentoxin-IV: a post-translational modification that increases the trapping ability to the sodium channel.

Rong M, Duan Z, Chen J, Li J, Xiao Y, Liang S.

PLoS One. 2013 Jun 24;8(6):e65984. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065984. Print 2013.


Molecular interactions of the gating modifier toxin ProTx-II with NaV 1.5: implied existence of a novel toxin binding site coupled to activation.

Smith JJ, Cummins TR, Alphy S, Blumenthal KM.

J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 27;282(17):12687-97. Epub 2007 Mar 5.


Analysis of the structural and molecular basis of voltage-sensitive sodium channel inhibition by the spider toxin huwentoxin-IV (μ-TRTX-Hh2a).

Minassian NA, Gibbs A, Shih AY, Liu Y, Neff RA, Sutton SW, Mirzadegan T, Connor J, Fellows R, Husovsky M, Nelson S, Hunter MJ, Flinspach M, Wickenden AD.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Aug 2;288(31):22707-20. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.461392. Epub 2013 Jun 12.


Synthesis and characterization of huwentoxin-IV, a neurotoxin inhibiting central neuronal sodium channels.

Xiao Y, Luo X, Kuang F, Deng M, Wang M, Zeng X, Liang S.

Toxicon. 2008 Feb;51(2):230-9. Epub 2007 Sep 29.


Block of T-type calcium channels by protoxins I and II.

Bladen C, Hamid J, Souza IA, Zamponi GW.

Mol Brain. 2014 May 9;7:36. doi: 10.1186/1756-6606-7-36.


Identification and Characterization of ProTx-III [μ-TRTX-Tp1a], a New Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Inhibitor from Venom of the Tarantula Thrixopelma pruriens.

Cardoso FC, Dekan Z, Rosengren KJ, Erickson A, Vetter I, Deuis JR, Herzig V, Alewood PF, King GF, Lewis RJ.

Mol Pharmacol. 2015 Aug;88(2):291-303. doi: 10.1124/mol.115.098178. Epub 2015 May 15.


Insect-selective spider toxins targeting voltage-gated sodium channels.

Nicholson GM.

Toxicon. 2007 Mar 15;49(4):490-512. Epub 2006 Dec 5. Review.


Structure and function of hainantoxin-III, a selective antagonist of neuronal tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels isolated from the Chinese bird spider Ornithoctonus hainana.

Liu Z, Cai T, Zhu Q, Deng M, Li J, Zhou X, Zhang F, Li D, Li J, Liu Y, Hu W, Liang S.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 12;288(28):20392-403. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.426627. Epub 2013 May 23.


Huwentoxin-XVI, an analgesic, highly reversible mammalian N-type calcium channel antagonist from Chinese tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena.

Deng M, Luo X, Xiao Y, Sun Z, Jiang L, Liu Z, Zeng X, Chen H, Tang J, Zeng W, Songping Liang.

Neuropharmacology. 2014 Apr;79:657-67. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.01.017. Epub 2014 Jan 24.


Tarantula toxin ProTx-I differentiates between human T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels Cav3.1 and Cav3.2.

Ohkubo T, Yamazaki J, Kitamura K.

J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;112(4):452-8. Epub 2010 Mar 30.


Deconstructing voltage sensor function and pharmacology in sodium channels.

Bosmans F, Martin-Eauclaire MF, Swartz KJ.

Nature. 2008 Nov 13;456(7219):202-8. doi: 10.1038/nature07473.

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