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Exposure to nicotine and a tobacco-specific carcinogen increase with duration of use of smokeless tobacco.

Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Edmonds A, Murphy SE, Stepanov I, Luo X, Hatsukami DK.

Tob Control. 2008 Apr;17(2):128-31. doi: 10.1136/tc.2007.023242.


Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Murphy SE, Riley WT, Le C, Luo X, Mooney M, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Aug;16(8):1567-72.


Analysis of human urine for pyridine-N-oxide metabolites of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen.

Carmella SG, Borukhova A, Akerkar SA, Hecht SS.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Feb;6(2):113-20.


Evaluation of carcinogen exposure in people who used "reduced exposure" tobacco products.

Hatsukami DK, Lemmonds C, Zhang Y, Murphy SE, Le C, Carmella SG, Hecht SS.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jun 2;96(11):844-52.


Metabolites of a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)- 1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), in the urine of smokeless tobacco users: relationship between urinary biomarkers and oral leukoplakia.

Kresty LA, Carmella SG, Borukhova A, Akerkar SA, Gopalakrishnan R, Harris RE, Stoner GD, Hecht SS.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Jul;5(7):521-5.


Metabolism of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone to its biomarker total NNAL in smokeless tobacco users.

Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Stepanov I, Jensen J, Anderson A, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Mar;17(3):732-5. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2843.


Smokeless tobacco topography and toxin exposure.

Lemmonds CA, Hecht SS, Jensen JA, Murphy SE, Carmella SG, Zhang Y, Hatsukami DK.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2005 Jun;7(3):469-74.


Uptake and metabolism of carcinogenic levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines by Sudanese snuff dippers.

Murphy SE, Carmella SG, Idris AM, Hoffmann D.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994 Jul-Aug;3(5):423-8.


Urine cotinine underestimates exposure to the tobacco-derived lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in passive compared with active smokers.

Benowitz N, Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Lazcano-Ponce E, Zielinska-Danch W, Koszowski B, Sobczak A, Havel C, Jacob P 3rd.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov;19(11):2795-800. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0497. Epub 2010 Aug 30.


Uptake of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone by Moldovan children.

Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Duca G, Mardari I.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Jan;15(1):7-11.


Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers.

Tulunay OE, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Zhang Y, Lemmonds C, Murphy S, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 May;14(5):1283-6.


Exposure to a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in adolescent versus adult smokers.

Hertsgaard LA, Hanson K, Hecht SS, Lindgren BR, Luo X, Carmella SG, Riley WT, Zylla EB, Murphy SE, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Dec;17(12):3337-43. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0307.


Effect of maternal tobacco smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke on the levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine of mother and the first urine of newborn.

Florek E, Piekoszewski W, Basior A, Merritt AT, Mazela J, Lechowicz W, Kornacka MK, Kramer L.

J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;62(3):377-83.


A comparison of urinary biomarkers of tobacco and carcinogen exposure in smokers.

Murphy SE, Link CA, Jensen J, Le C, Puumala SS, Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Losey L, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Oct;13(10):1617-23.


Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in the urine of elementary school-aged children.

Hecht SS, Ye M, Carmella SG, Fredrickson A, Adgate JL, Greaves IA, Church TR, Ryan AD, Mongin SJ, Sexton K.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001 Nov;10(11):1109-16.


Tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in smokers in the United States: NHANES 2007-2008.

Xia Y, Bernert JT, Jain RB, Ashley DL, Pirkle JL.

Biomarkers. 2011 Mar;16(2):112-9. doi: 10.3109/1354750X.2010.533288. Epub 2010 Nov 29.


Quantitation of metabolites of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone after cessation of smokeless tobacco use.

Hecht SS, Carmella SG, Ye M, Le KA, Jensen JA, Zimmerman CL, Hatsukami DK.

Cancer Res. 2002 Jan 1;62(1):129-34.


The ratio of a urinary tobacco-specific lung carcinogen metabolite to cotinine is significantly higher in passive than in active smokers.

Vogel RI, Carmella SG, Stepanov I, Hatsukami DK, Hecht SS.

Biomarkers. 2011 Sep;16(6):491-7. doi: 10.3109/1354750X.2011.598565. Epub 2011 Aug 3.


Direct analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK and its metabolite NNAL in human urine by LC-MS/MS: evidence of linkage to methylated DNA lesions.

Hu CW, Hsu YW, Chen JL, Tam LM, Chao MR.

Arch Toxicol. 2014 Feb;88(2):291-9. doi: 10.1007/s00204-013-1137-y. Epub 2013 Sep 22.


Racial differences in exposure and glucuronidation of the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

Muscat JE, Djordjevic MV, Colosimo S, Stellman SD, Richie JP Jr.

Cancer. 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1420-6.

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