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J Virol. 2008 Jul;82(13):6618-30. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00140-08. Epub 2008 Apr 30.

The temperate marine phage PhiHAP-1 of Halomonas aquamarina possesses a linear plasmid-like prophage genome.

Author information

  • 1University of South Florida, College of Marine Science, 140 7th Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701, USA.

Abstract

A myovirus-like temperate phage, PhiHAP-1, was induced with mitomycin C from a Halomonas aquamarina strain isolated from surface waters in the Gulf of Mexico. The induced cultures produced significantly more virus-like particles (VLPs) (3.73 x 10(10) VLP ml(-1)) than control cultures (3.83 x 10(7) VLP ml(-1)) when observed with epifluorescence microscopy. The induced phage was sequenced by using linker-amplified shotgun libraries and contained a genome 39,245 nucleotides in length with a G+C content of 59%. The PhiHAP-1 genome contained 46 putative open reading frames (ORFs), with 76% sharing significant similarity (E value of <10(-3)) at the protein level with other sequences in GenBank. Putative functional gene assignments included small and large terminase subunits, capsid and tail genes, an N6-DNA adenine methyltransferase, and lysogeny-related genes. Although no integrase was found, the PhiHAP-1 genome contained ORFs similar to protelomerase and parA genes found in linear plasmid-like phages with telomeric ends. Southern probing and PCR analysis of host genomic, plasmid, and PhiHAP-1 DNA indicated a lack of integration of the prophage with the host chromosome and a difference in genome arrangement between the prophage and virion forms. The linear plasmid prophage form of PhiHAP-1 begins with the protelomerase gene, presumably due to the activity of the protelomerase, while the induced phage particle has a circularly permuted genome that begins with the terminase genes. The PhiHAP-1 genome shares synteny and gene similarity with coliphage N15 and vibriophages VP882 and VHML, suggesting an evolutionary heritage from an N15-like linear plasmid prophage ancestor.

PMID:
18448537
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2447096
Free PMC Article

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