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Plant Physiol. 2007 Dec;145(4):1211-9. Epub 2007 Oct 11.

The pCLEAN dual binary vector system for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation.

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  • 1Department of Crop Genetics, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom.


The development of novel transformation vectors is essential to the improvement of plant transformation technologies. Here, we report the construction and testing of a new multifunctional dual binary vector system, pCLEAN, for Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. The pCLEAN vectors are based on the widely used pGreen/pSoup system and the pCLEAN-G/pCLEAN-S plasmids are fully compatible with the existing pGreen/pSoup vectors. A single Agrobacterium can harbor (1) pCLEAN-G and pSoup, (2) pGreen and pCLEAN-S, or (3) pCLEAN-G and pCLEAN-S vector combination. pCLEAN vectors have been designed to enable the delivery of multiple transgenes from distinct T-DNAs and/or vector backbone sequences while minimizing the insertion of superfluous DNA sequences into the plant nuclear genome as well as facilitating the production of marker-free plants. pCLEAN vectors contain a minimal T-DNA (102 nucleotides) consisting of direct border repeats surrounding a 52-nucleotide-long multiple cloning site, an optimized left-border sequence, a double left-border sequence, restriction sites outside the borders, and two independent T-DNAs. In addition, selectable and/or reporter genes have been inserted into the vector backbone sequence to allow either the counter-screening of backbone transfer or its exploitation for the production of marker-free plants. The efficiency of the different pCLEAN vectors has been assessed using transient and stable transformation assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and/or Oryza sativa.

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