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Neurosurgery. 2011 Mar;68(1 Suppl Operative):152-60; discussion 160-1. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31820783ba.

Three-dimensional visualization of subdural electrodes for presurgical planning.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA. plaviole@mcw.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Accurate localization and visualization of subdural electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography in cases of medically refractory epilepsy remains a challenging clinical problem.

OBJECTIVE:

We introduce a technique for creating accurate 3-dimensional (3D) brain models with electrode overlays, ideal for resective surgical planning.

METHODS:

Our procedure uses postimplantation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging to create 3D models of compression-affected brain combined with intensity-thresholded CT-derived electrode models using freely available software. Footprints, or "shadows," beneath electrodes are also described for better visualization of sulcus-straddling electrodes. Electrode models were compared with intraoperative photography for validation.

RESULTS:

Realistic representations of intracranial electrode positions on patient-specific postimplantation MRI brain renderings were reliably created and proved accurate when compared with photographs. Electrodes placed interhemispherically were also visible with our rendering technique. Electrode shadows were useful in locating electrodes that straddle sulci.

CONCLUSION:

We present an accurate method for visualizing subdural electrodes on brain compression effected 3D models that serves as an ideal platform for surgical planning.

PMID:
21206319
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC4339031
Free PMC Article
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