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J Control Release. 1999 Feb 1;57(2):171-85.

PLGA nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation: drug loading and release studies of a water soluble drug.

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  • 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

Abstract

The nanoprecipitation technique for preparation of nanoparticles suffers the drawback of poor incorporation of water soluble drugs. The aim of this study was therefore to assess various formulation parameters to enhance the incorporation of a water soluble drug (procaine hydrochloride) into poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles prepared by this technique. Approaches investigated for drug incorporation efficiency enhancement included the influence of aqueous phase pH, replacement of procaine hydrochloride with procaine dihydrate and the inclusion of excipients: poly(dl-lactide) (PLA) oligomers, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (PMMA-MA) or fatty acids into the formulation. The nanoparticles produced were submicron size (<210 nm) and of low polydispersity. It was found that an aqueous phase pH of 9.3, replacement of procaine hydrochloride with procaine dihydrate and the incorporation of PMMA-MA, lauric and caprylic acid into the formulation could enhance drug incorporation efficiency without the size, morphology and nanoparticle recovery being adversely influenced. For instance changing the aqueous phase pH from 5.8 to 9.3 increased nanoparticle recovery from 65.1 to 93.4%, drug content from 0.3 to 1.3% w/w and drug entrapment from 11.0 to 58.2%. However, the presence of high ratios of lauric acid and procaine dihydrate in the formulation adversely affected the morphology and size of the nanoparticles. Also, PLA oligomers were not considered a feasible approach since it decreased drug entrapment from 11.0 to 8.4% and nanoparticle recovery from 65.1 to 19.6%. Drug release from nanoparticles appears to consist of two components with an initial rapid release followed by a slower exponential stage. This study has demonstrated that formulation variables can be exploited in order to enhance the incorporation of a water soluble drug into PLGA nanoparticles by the nanoprecipitation technique.

PMID:
9971898
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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