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Blood. 1999 Feb 15;93(4):1137-44.

Interferon-gamma upregulates CCR5 expression in cord and adult blood mononuclear phagocytes.

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  • 1Divisions of Neonatology, the Clinical Immunology Laboratories, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA


The C-C chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR3 are fusion coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into macrophages. The regulation of their expression influences infectivity by HIV. We report here that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) a cytokine that has bidirectional effects on HIV infection of macrophages, significantly upregulated CCR5 and CCR3 cell surface expression in human mononuclear phagocytes isolated from placental cord blood and adult peripheral blood. Monocytes treated with IFN-gamma showed increased chemotaxis to the CCR5 ligands macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and MIP-1beta, confirming the functional relevance of IFN-gamma-induced CCR5 expression. However, IFN-gamma suppressed HIV entry into macrophages. Interestingly, we demonstrated that IFN-gamma inhibited cell surface expression of CD4, the major receptor for HIV. This finding may explain the suppressive effect of IFN-gamma on HIV entry into macrophages, despite its enhancing effect on the expression of CCR5 and CCR3 by these cells. In addition, IFN-gamma-induced secretion of C-C chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta) by mononuclear phagocytes may also suppress HIV entry into macrophages. These data provide further evidence for cytokine-mediated regulation of CCR5 expression and are consistent with a novel paradigm in which cytokines regulate HIV infection and leukocyte migration by reciprocal and opposing effects on the expression of CD4 and chemokine receptors.

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