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Nature. 1999 Jan 21;397(6716):263-6.

ICOS is an inducible T-cell co-stimulator structurally and functionally related to CD28.

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  • 1Molecular Immunology, Robert Koch-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

Abstract

The T-cell-specific cell-surface receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 are important regulators of the immune system. CD28 potently enhances those T-cell functions that are essential for an effective antigen-specific immune response, and the homologous CTLA-4 counterbalances the CD28-mediated signals and thus prevents an otherwise fatal overstimulation of the lymphoid system. Here we report the identification of a third member of this family of molecules, inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), which is a homodimeric protein of relative molecular mass 55,000-60,000 (M(r) 55K-60K). Matching CD28 in potency, ICOS enhances all basic T-cell responses to a foreign antigen, namely proliferation, secretion of lymphokines, upregulation of molecules that mediate cell-cell interaction, and effective help for antibody secretion by B cells. Unlike the constitutively expressed CD28, ICOS has to be de novo induced on the T-cell surface, does not upregulate the production of interleukin-2, but superinduces the synthesis of interleukin-10, a B-cell-differentiation factor. In vivo, ICOS is highly expressed on tonsillar T cells, which are closely associated with B cells in the apical light zone of germinal centres, the site of terminal B-cell maturation. Our results indicate that ICOS is another major regulator of the adaptive immune system.

PMID:
9930702
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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