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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999 Feb;43(2):271-7.

Clinical pharmacokinetics of 1-[((S)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,4,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl]cytosine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

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  • 1Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, California 94404, USA.


The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of 1-[((S)-2-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,4,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl]cytosi ne (cyclic HPMPC) were examined at four doses in 22 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Two groups of six patients received a single dose of cyclic HPMPC at 1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg of body weight by each of the oral and intravenous routes in a random order with a 2-week washout period between administrations. Additional patients received single intravenous doses of cyclic HPMPC at 5.0 mg/kg (n = 6) or 7.5 mg/kg (n = 4). Serial serum and urine samples were collected at intervals over 24 h after dosing. The concentrations of cyclic HPMPC and cidofovir in serum and urine samples were determined by validated reverse-phase ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography methods with derivatization and fluorescence detection. After intravenous administration of cyclic HPMPC, concentrations of cyclic HPMPC declined in a biexponential manner, with a mean +/- standard deviation half-life of 1.09 +/- 0.12 h (n = 22). The pharmacokinetics of cyclic HPMPC were independent of dose over the dose range of 1.5 to 7.5 mg/kg. The total clearance of cyclic HPMPC from serum and the volume of distribution of intravenous cyclic HPMPC were 198 +/- 39.6 ml/h/kg and 338 +/- 65.1 ml/kg, respectively (n = 22). The renal clearance of cyclic HPMPC (132 +/- 27.3 ml/h/kg; n = 22) exceeded the creatinine clearance (86.2 +/- 16.3 ml/h/kg), indicating active tubular secretion. The cyclic HPMPC excreted in urine in 24 h accounted for 71.3% +/- 16.0% of the administered dose. Cidofovir was formed from cyclic HPMPC in vivo with a time to the maximum concentration in serum of 1.64 +/- 0.23 h (n = 22). Cidofovir levels declined in an apparent monoexponential manner, with a mean terminal half-life of 3.98 +/- 1.26 h (n = 22). The cidofovir excreted in urine in 24 h accounted for 9.40% +/- 2.33% of the administered cyclic HPMPC dose. Exposure to cidofovir after intravenous administration of cyclic HPMPC was dose proportional and was 14.9% of that from an equivalent dose of cidofovir. The present study suggests that intravenous cyclic HPMPC also has a lower potential for nephrotoxicity in humans compared to that of intravenous cidofovir. The oral bioavailabilities of cyclic HPMPC were 1.76% +/- 1.48% and 3.10% +/- 1.16% with the administration of doses of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively (n = 6 per dose). The maximum concentrations of cyclic HPMPC in serum were 0.036 +/- 0.021 and 0.082 +/- 0.038 microgram/ml after the oral administration of doses of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively. Cidofovir reached quantifiable levels in the serum of only one patient for each of the 1.5- and 3.0-mg/kg oral cyclic HPMPC doses.

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