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J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 29;274(5):2786-93.

Action of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase Cgamma1 on soluble and micellar substrates. Separating effects on catalysis from modulation of the surface.

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  • 1Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467, USA.


The kinetics of PI-PLCgamma1 toward a water-soluble substrate (inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate, cIP) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) in detergent mixed micelles were monitored by 31P NMR spectroscopy. That cIP is also a substrate (Km = approximately 15 mM) implies a two-step mechanism (intramolecular phosphotransferase reaction to form cIP followed by cyclic phosphodiesterase activity to form inositol-1-phosphate (I-1-P)). PI is cleaved by PI-PLCgamma1 to form cIP and I-1-P with the enzyme specific activity and ratio of products (cIP/I-1-P) regulated by assay temperature, pH, Ca2+, and other amphiphilic additives. Cleavage of both cIP and PI by the enzyme is optimal at pH 5. The effect of Ca2+ on PI-PLCgamma1 activity is unique compared with other isozymes enzymes: Ca2+ is necessary for the activity and low Ca2+ activates the enzyme; however, high Ca2+ inhibits PI-PLCgamma1 hydrolysis of phosphoinositides (but not cIP) with the extent of inhibition dependent on pH, substrate identity (cIP or PI), substrate presentation (e.g. detergent matrix), and substrate surface concentration. This inhibition of PI-PLCgamma1 by high Ca2+ is proposed to derive from the divalent metal ion-inducing clustering of the PI and reducing its accessibility to the enzyme. Amphiphilic additives such as phosphatidic acid, fatty acid, and sodium dodecylsulfate enhance PI cleavage in micelles at pH 7.5 but not at pH 5.0; they have no effect on cIP hydrolysis at either pH value. These different kinetic patterns are used to propose a model for regulation of the enzyme. A key hypothesis is that there is a pH-dependent conformational change in the enzyme that controls accessibility of the active site to both water-soluble cIP and interfacially organized PI. The low activity enzyme at pH 7.5 can be activated by PA (or phosphorylation by tyrosine kinase). However, this activation requires lipophilic substrate (PI) present because cIP hydrolysis is not enhanced in the presence of PA.

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