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Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Jan;26(1-2):148-61.

Photoreduction of the fluorescent dye 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein: a spin trapping and direct electron spin resonance study with implications for oxidative stress measurements.

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  • 1Dipartimento di Chimica Organica A. Mangini, Università di Bologna, Italy.


The photoreduction of 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) was investigated in buffer solution using direct electron spin resonance (ESR) and the ESR spin-trapping technique. Anaerobic studies of the reaction of DCF in the presence of reducing agents demonstrated that during visible irradiation (lambda > 300 nm) 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein undergoes one-electron reduction to produce a semiquinone-type free radical as demonstrated by direct ESR. Spin-trapping studies of incubations containing DCF, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and either reduced glutathione (GSH) or reduced NADH demonstrate, under irradiation with visible light, the production of the superoxide dismutase-sensitive DMPO/*OOH adduct. In the absence of DMPO, measurements with a Clark-type oxygen electrode show that molecular oxygen is consumed in a light-dependent process. The semiquinone radical of DCF, when formed in an aerobic system, is immediately oxidized by oxygen, which regenerates the dye and forms superoxide.

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