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Eur J Radiol. 1998 Oct;28(3):256-69.

Quantitative scintigraphic parameters for the assessment of renal transplant patients.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Radionuclide renal diagnostic studies play an important role in assessing renal allograft function especially in the early post transplant period. In the last two decades various quantitative parameters have been derived from the radionuclide renogram to facilitate and confirm the changes in perfusion and/or function of the kidney allograft. In this review article we discuss the quantitative parameters that have been used to assess graft condition with emphasis on the early post-operative period. These quantitative methods were divided into parameters used for assessing renal graft perfusion and parameters used for evaluating parenchymal function. The blood flow in renal transplants can be quantified by measuring (a) the rate of activity appearance in the kidney graft; (b) the ratio of the integral activity under the transplanted kidney and arterial curves e.g. Hilson's perfusion index and Kircher's kidney/aortic ratio; (c) calculating the renal vascular transit time by deconvolution analysis. The literature overview on these parameters showed us that they have some practical disadvantages of requiring high quality bolus injection and numerical variations related to changes in the site and size of regions of interest. In addition, the perfusion parameter values suffer from significant overlap when various graft pathologies coexist. Quantitative evaluation of the graft parenchymal extraction and excretion was assessed by parameters derived from 123I/131I-OIH, 99mTc-DTPA or 99mTc-MAG3 renograms. We review in this article a number of parenchymal parameters which include (1) plasma clearance methods like glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF); (2) renal transit times such as parenchymal mean transit time, Tmax, T1/2; (3) parenchymal uptake and excretion indices as the accumulation index, graft uptake capacity at 2 and 10 min, excretion index and elimination index. These indices, however, are non-specific and far from defining a specific cause for graft parenchymal dysfunction. In conclusion, despite that the literature is replete with mathematical strategies for quantitating perfusion and parenchymal functions, none of these have enough diagnostic power for specific diagnosis of graft dysfunction. In addition, no universal agreement on the use of certain quantitation parameters in transplant patients has been reached.

PMID:
9881262
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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